Food
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Food

DRINKS

Gërimai

Mead and beer are ceremonial and traditional drinks. Mead, midus is the oldest and noblest drink, served during banquets and special occasions. Travelers and chroniclers wrote about the manufacture and use of mead by Lithuanians and Prussians as early as the eleventh century. Good conditions existed to make mead because Lithuanians since early times took honey from wild bees in tree hollows. Today people have several hives on their farmsteads, to satisfy their family needs. Mead ten or more years old was the landlord’s pride, for mead’s quality increases with age.

Often to celebrate the birth of a child, the father made a batch of mead. This batch was kept and aged until the child’s wedding.

There was a time when mead took second place to vodka. However about 30 years ago there was a revival and mead was made again, using ancient recipes. Mead is again found on holiday tables, together with songs about mead and its traditions.

Beer has been brewed in Lithuania since ancient times and even today is a popular, traditional drink. It is always brewed for family celebrations, feast days, barn raisings and funerals. Beer is brewed from sprouted barley malt. The most popular malt beer is made in Central and North Eastern Lithuania, where a strong beer is popular. In Samogitia, eemaitija, beer is brewed using dried bread, hops and sugar. Most often the man of the house brews his own beer. However, for special occasions, to brew extra good beer, a well known brew master is hired. During festivities, the brew master’s other job is to make sure that pitchers are always full.

The making of home made wine in Lithuania was begun at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most wine was made in the South Western region, Suvalkija, from forest and orchard fruits and berries.

Another ancient drink is made from birch and maple sap, collected in early spring. Sap is drunk fresh and fermented for summer drinking.

To satisfy thirst, Lithuanians brew a semi sour drink, gira – kvass.

Much appreciated from ancient times are linden, thyme, caraway seed, mint, raspberry, strawberry, camomile, dill seed and other herb teas, which not only refresh but also have healing properties.

MEAD

Midus

True mead is made with natural, light honey. In Lithuania and neighboring countries home made mead varies because of different seasonings used. LITHUANIAN MEAD

Lietuviðkas midus

10 k (20 lbs) honey

10 l (10 qts) water

1cup dried hops

1 tablespoon dried juniper berries

8 teaspoons wine yeast

Pour honey into stainless steel or enameled pot, cover with spring water, mix well and bring to a boil on low heat. Place hops and juniper berries into a linen bag and drop into boiling honey-water solution. Skim off scum and continue to boil until no more scum forms, about 1/2 hour. Cool solution to 85F/30C, add yeast, mix well and pour mixture into a glass carboy. Close bottle with cork, run a small hose or glass tube through the cork, one end of which is placed in a jar with water. This will allow the release of fermentation gases. Keep the fermenting carboy in a warm spot for about 3 weeks. As fermentation comes to an end, a deposit will form at the bottom of the carboy, decant mead into another carboy, stopper and keep at same warm temperature for about 3 months. Decant again and pour into an oak barrel. Close barrel and set in a cool spot. To obtain strong mead, age up to 5 years. CARAWAY TEA

Kmynø arbata

1 tablespoon caraway seed

1 cup water

sugar to taste

Pour hot water over caraway seed, boil for 5-10 minutes, then let infuse for several minutes. Strain and pour into cups, add sugar to taste. LINDEN BLOSSOM TEA

Liepþiedþiø arbata

15 linden blossom branches

2 tablespoons honey

2 tablespoons raspberry preserves

2 cups water

Cover linden blossoms with boiling water and boil for 3-5 minutes. Strain, add honey and preserves and mix well. This tea is drunk on bitterly cold days and at bedtime. ACORN COFFEE

Giliø kava

1 l (1 quart) acorns

1 l (1 quart) milk

Dry freshly picked acorns at room temperature for a couple of days. Shell and cook in milk until soft, about 45-60 minutes. Remove acorns from milk and blot dry, saute in a dry skillet until golden brown. Grind scorched acorns and store in a tight container.

To make acorn coffee, take 1 part water, 2 parts sweet cream or milk. Place 3 teaspoons acorn coffee in boiling water, boil 2-3 minutes, whiten with milk or cream and add sugar to taste CARROT COFFEE

Morkø kava

1/2 k (1 lb) carrots, peeled and grated

1 l (1 quart) water

1 cup sweet cream

sugar to taste

Spread grated carrots on baking sheet and dry in oven, at low heat until carrot gratings turn dark brown, but are not burned. Cover dried carrots with hot water, boil for 5 minutes, remove from heat and let infuse for several minutes. Strain, warm if it has cooled, pour into cups, whiten with cream, sugar to taste.

Store dried carrots in a tightly covered container, so that they are always at hand when desire for carrot coffee arises. BREAD KVASS

Duonos gira

1/2 k (1 lb) dried, black rye bread

5 l (5 quarts) water

20 g (4 teaspoons) yeast

1 cup raisins

Cover bread with boiling water and let sit for 24 hours. Strain, add yeast blended with sugar, and remaining sugar, mix well and let ferment for 1-2 days in a warm spot.

Pour fermented liquid into glass bottles, add several raisins
to each bottle and close tightly. Store in a cool place.

Kvass is ready to drink the next day. It will be drinkable for up to 2 months, if kept in a cold spot. CARAWAY SEED KVASS

Kmynø gira

2 cups caraway seed

5 l (5 quarts) water

1/2 k (1 lb) sugar

1 cup raisins

20 g (4 teaspoons) yeast

Cover caraway seed with cold water and boil for 15-20 minutes. Strain, add sugar and cool to 105F/40C. Add proofed yeast, raisins. Set in a warm spot to ferment for 2 days. Pour into bottles, close tightly and keep in cold place. This will be ready in 2-3 days. BARLEY KVASS

Mieþiø gira

1 k (2 lbs) barley; 1/2 k (1 lb) sugar

20 g (1 cup) dried hops

5 l (5 quarts) water

20 g (4 teaspoons) yeast

Saute barley in skillet until golden brown. Pour barley into a pot, cover with cold water, add hops and cook for 30 minutes. Strain, mix in sugar, cool and add proofed yeast. Let ferment in a warm spot for 48 hours. Pour fermented liquid into bottles, close bottles and store in a cool place. Barley kvass tastes best when 3 days old. CRANBERRY KVASS

Spanguoliø gira

1 k (2 lbs) cranberries

1 k (2 lbs) sugar

20 g (4 teaspoons) yeast

5 l (5 quarts) water

Pour sugar and cranberries into a pot, cover with water and cook for 10 minutes. Put everything through a food mill and wash down pulp with berry juice. Cool and add proofed yeast, mix well. Set in a warm spot to ferment, for 3 days.

Cranberry kvass is drunk right away or poured into bottles and stored in a cool place. HONEY KVASS

Medaus gira

1/2 l (2 cups) honey

5 l (5 quarts) water

20 g (4 teaspoons) yeast

1 cup raisins

juice of 2 lemons

Place honey in hot, boiled water, stir until honey melts. Cool. Add proofed yeast and let ferment for 24 hours in a warm place, until liquid begins to foam. Remove scum, add raisins and lemon juice. Pour into bottles and store in cool place.

Honey kvass is brewed for weddings and other festivities. BEET PUDDING

Burokëliø kisielius

2 cups beet juice, made from raw beets

2 l (2 quarts) water

4 tablespoons potato starch

1/2 vanilla bean

2 lemons

Dissolve starch in 1 cup cold water. Bring remaining water to a boil, mix in starch solution, vanilla bean, sugar, beet juice, juice of 1 lemon. Bring mixture to a boil.

Remove from heat, pour pudding into a glass pitcher, add thinly sliced lemon and let cool.

Beet pudding has not only a beautiful, rosy color but a very distinctive taste. TREE SAP

Sula

Towards the end of March, before leaves appear, maples and birches are tapped for their sap. Maple trees are tapped more often because their sap is much sweeter than birch sap. FERMENTED TREE SAP

Rauginta sula

Fill a wooden barrel with maple or birch sap. For extra flavor add black currant, cherry or birch branches. Cover top with oats. Oats are light and remain on the surface and sprout creating a 5 cm/2 inches thick cover. This method of covering the sap creates a flavorful fermentation. Such fermented sap can be kept for several months in a cool place and be available to satisfy summer thirst. Cut a round opening in the oat cover to allow a ladle to enter the barrel. Replace the cut out round when enough drink has been ladled. POPPY SEED MILK

Aguonø pienas

1 cup poppy seed

1 l (1 quart) water

1/2 cup sugar

Process poppy seed in food processor until a thick mass is formed. Using a meat grinder it will take 2 grindings of scalded poppy seeds to make a thick mass. Pour boiled but chilled water over poppy seed mass, add sugar and mix well.

Poppy milk is served with cookies, and used in soups and drinks. It is also served with oat pudding and Christmas biscuits. HEMP SEED MILK

Kanapiø pienas

1/2 l (2 cups) hemp seed

1 l (1 quart) boiled water

salt to taste

pinch of pepper

Saute hemp seed in skillet until crisp. Process seed in food processor or grind in meat grinder until powdery. Pour powdered hemp seed into hot, boiled water, add salt and pepper and mix well.

Both poppy and hemp seed milks are used in place of cow’s milk, especially during times of fasting or during winter when there is a shortage of regular milk.

BAKED GOODS AND SWEETS

Kepiniai ir saldumynai

Lithuanian people do not have a sweet tooth. Baked goods and sweets are not a part of daily eating. However each homemaker does her very best to be creative and to pamper the family especially during holidays and special occasions. Formerly, for holidays and weddings a variety of cakes, cookies and sweet rolls was baked. Tables were laden with beautifully decorated, delicious masterpieces. At wedding receptions, all eyes would be on the “karvojus“, a large wedding tart which was decorated with a variety of dough birds and animals. Earlier all cakes and dainties were baked by the homemaker herself or a person, famous for her culinary prowess would be hired.

At the beginning of this century, many new foods came to Lithuania, among them tortes and the famous baumkuchen from Germany, which now is a must for every special occasion.

Today Lithuanian homemakers have many recipes for all occasions. Most popular baked goods are made commercially from recipes based on traditional and newly arrived sweets.

However, the most appreciated baked goods are homemade and for this reason each homemaker is intent on creating recipes which will awe everyone and will please her family.HOLIDAY YEAST CAKE

Šventinis pyragas

1 k (2
flour

1/2 cup milk

4 teaspoons fresh yeast

2 teaspoons salt

4 tablespoons sugar

6 tablespoons butter

3 eggs; 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Dissolve yeast in sweetened, warm milk, sift in half of the flour, mix well. Sprinkle top of batter with flour and let rest in warm spot for 2-3 hours, until batter has doubled. Add remaining flour, salt and egg yolks beaten with sugar and vanilla. Mix well. Beat egg whites and fold into dough. Add melted butter and knead dough until it is no longer sticky. Cover and set in warm spot for another rising. Place dough into a round, greased baking pan, let rise one more time. Brush top with egg wash and bake in preheated oven at 375F/190C, for about 1 hour. POPPY SEED CAKE

Pyragas su aguonomis

1 k (2 lbs) flour; 1 1/2 cup milk

4 egg yolks; 1 whole egg

50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast; 6 tablespoons sugar

FILLING

300 g (10 oz) poppy seed; 150 g (5 oz) sugar

1 egg; 4 tablespoons finely chopped nuts,

filberts or walnuts; 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

50 g (4 tablespoons) candied orange peel,

finely chopped

Make dough with 1/3 flour, warm milk and yeast dissolved in sweetened warm milk. Blend all ingredients well, sprinkle top of dough with flour and let rest in a warm spot. 2 hours later, add remaining flour, salt and egg yolks beaten with sugar. Mix well, and knead dough until smooth and elastic. Let rest for a second rising.

Blend poppy seeds to a paste in food processor or blender. Mix poppy seed with nuts, orange peel, egg beaten with sugar and vanilla. Mix all ingredients.

Divide dough into two pieces. Roll out each piece on floured surface, spread filling evenly over each piece and roll up as for a jellyroll. Place each on a lightly greased baking sheet, let rest for another rising. Paint with egg wash and bake in preheated oven at 375F/190C, for about 45 minutes, until golden brown. Let cool covered with linen cloth, so that the cake does not dry out.BUCKWHEAT YEAST CAKE

Grikinis pyragas

1 k (2 lbs) buckwheat flour

1 l (4 cups) milk; 50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast

2 eggs; 100 g (3 oz; 6 t) butter

salt

Cream butter and sugar until light, add eggs beaten with milk and a pinch salt, add flour and yeast mixed with sugar. Blend all ingredients and beat dough until spongy. Place dough into a greased, round baking pan, let rest in a warm spot until dough has risen, about 1 hour. Bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 1 hour.

This is a holiday bread, best when fresh.HOLIDAY BABA

Šventinė boba

15 egg yolks; 1 cup sugar; 2 cups milk

100 g (6 tablespoons) fresh yeast

1 cup butter; 1 cup sour cream

1 cup raisins; 5 cups flour

2 teaspoons vanilla extract; salt

ICING

3 egg whites; 3 cups powdered sugar

juice of 1 lemon; 1 cup butter

1/2 cup chocolate; 1 cup ground filberts

Blend yeast with 1/4 cup sugar and dissolve in warm milk. Add 1 cup flour, beat well and let rest in warm spot for about 30-45 minutes. Beat egg yolks with remaining sugar until yolks are pale yellow. Add remaining flour to eggs and yeast mixture, mix well. Add melted, chilled butter, raisins, sour cream and pinch of salt, blend all until a soft dough is formed. Cover dough and let rise for 1-2 hours. Beat dough again and set in warm spot for another rising. Grease a high sided cake pan, sprinkle with bread crumbs, place dough into baking pan, not more than 1/3 full. Let rise and when doubled bake in preheated oven at 375F/190C, about 1 hour.

To make white icing cream egg whites with powdered sugar and lemon juice. For chocolate icing melt butter, add chocolate and heat on low heat until chocolate melts.

When baba is done, let cool in baking pan. Remove from pan and decorate with white icing, then dribble slightly cooled chocolate on top of white icing, allow chocolate to run down sides. Sprinkle chopped nuts on top.

Baba is a must for Easter, weddings and other special occasions. WEDDING CAKE

Svočios karvojus

1 1/2 k (3 lbs) flour; 1 1/2 cups milk

4 tablespoons fresh yeast; 10 egg yolks

2 cups butter; 2 cups sugar

3 cups raisins; 3 teaspoons vanilla extract

salt

ICING

3 egg whites; 3 cups powdered sugar

Warm milk and add yeast blended with 1 cup sugar and a third of flour. Blend well and let rise in warm spot. Beat egg yolks with remaining sugar and vanilla until pale yellow and add to risen yeast dough, blend well. Add melted, cooled butter and remaining flour and pinch of salt. Knead dough until small blisters form. Add raisins, incorporate well into dough. Cover dough, set in warm spot and let rise for 1-2 hours. Take 3/4 dough, form a round shape, place on greased baking sheet. Let rise. With remaining dough make a braid and place it around the round dough shape. On top, in the center, make circles by pressing a glass into dough and stick many wooden sticks into the top. Bake in preheated oven at 400F/200C, about 1 1/2 hours. When the tart is done, decorate with icing, remove sticks and in their place insert dough birds, stars dusted with powdered sugar or covered with icing. Just before leaving for the wedding feast, fill remaining holes with branches of rue and other flowers.

This tart is an important part of the marriage ritual.WEDDING TWIST

Vestuvinė riestė

1 k (2 lbs) flour; 100 g (3 oz) fresh yeast

1 cup milk; 5 egg yolks

1 1/2 cups sugar; 1 1/2 cups butter

2 cups raisins; 2 teaspoons vanilla extract

salt

ICING

3 egg whites; 3 cups powdered sugar

juice of 1 lemon

Warm milk, add yeast blended with 1/2 cup
sugar. Mix well. Add one third of flour to yeast and blend well and let rise in a warm spot. Beat egg yolks with remaining sugar, vanilla until pale yellow, add to yeast mixture, mix well. Chill melted butter and incorporate into yeast mixture, mix well, add remaining flour and salt and knead until small blisters form. Add raisins and incorporate into dough. Cover dough, let rise in warm spot for 2 hours. Form a figure 8 with dough, place on greased baking sheet. To keep figure 8 during next rising, insert heat resistant, round forms. Let rise for 1/2 hour, then bake in preheated oven at 350F/160C, for about 1 hour. Cool on baking sheet, then cover thickly with icing.

This is another traditional wedding cake, also known as the cake of the matron of honor, which she decorates with live flowers, rue and viburnum berries. The matron will sometimes place bottles of sweet wine, inside the figure 8, bedecked with ribbons and flowers.HONEY CAKES

Meduoliai

Honey cakes are made with honey. They must be of a dark color, which is obtained when honey is boiled or by adding burnt sugar to the batter. Sour cream or sour milk are used to give sponginess to honey cakes and baking soda is used as a leavening agent. The taste of honey cakes depends on quantity and assortment of flavorings used. The seasonings used most often and quantities are: 2 tablespoons ground cinnamon, 2 tablespoons ground allspice, 4 teaspoons ground cloves, 1 tablespoon powdered orange peel and 4 teaspoons ground ginger.

The special quality of honey cakes is that they taste better when aged.SOFT HONEY CAKE

Minkštas meduolis

1/2 k (1 lb) honey; 1/2 k (1 lb) flour

3 eggs; 1 cup sour cream

1/2 cup butter

1/2 cup sugar

1 teaspoon baking soda

2 tablespoons seasoning

Boil honey on low heat, about 10 minutes, cool. Cream egg yolks with sugar and add to honey, add seasonings and mix well. Add melted butter, sour cream beaten with soda and flour. Blend all ingredients and fold in beaten egg whites. Pour batter into baking pan lined with greased paper. Bake in preheated oven at 325F/160C, for about 30-45 minutes. Cool cake in baking pan. HONEY MUSHROOMS

Meduoliai grybukai

1/2 k (1 lb) flour; 2 egg yolks

1 whole egg; 3 tablespoons butter

1 cup honey; 1 cup sugar; 1 teaspoon baking soda

2 tablespoons sour cream; 2 teaspoons seasonings

ICING

1 cup powdered sugar; 1 egg white

juice of 1/2 lemon; 1 teaspoon cocoa powder

Heat sugar in skillet until dark brown. Make dough using all ingredients. Dough should be quite hard. Let dough rest in cool spot. Divide dough in half. From one half make mushroom caps, walnut size rounds with an indentation on one side, place hole down on baking sheet. Make stems from other half of dough. Roll finger thick pieces, about 4 cm/2 inches long. Place next to caps and bake in preheated oven at 325F/160C, for about 25-30 minutes. To make icing beat egg white with powdered sugar and lemon juice. When caps and stems are done, glue stems into caps with white icing, and ice stems with white icing. Add cocoa powder to remaining icing, mix well and ice mushroom caps. Place iced mushrooms in warm oven to dry icing.BACON BUNS

Pyragėliai su lašiniais

1/2 k (1 lb) flour; 1 cup milk

4 teaspoons fresh yeast; 4 tablespoons butter

2 teaspoons sugar; salt; 1 egg for egg wash

FILLING

250 g (1/2 lb) bacon, finely cubed

1 onion, finely chopped

1 tablespoon butter

1/2 teaspoon ground allspice

1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

pinch of ground cloves

Blend yeast with sugar, dissolve in warm milk, add half flour, mix well and let rise for 1 hour. Then add remaining flour, melted butter, salt and knead well. Set in warm spot to rise for another hour.

To make filling fry onion in bu tter, add bacon cubes and spices. Mix all and heat only, do not fry.

Roll out dough to 1/2 inch thickness, cut out 2 1/2 inch rounds, place 1 teaspoon filling, fold over and seal edges, place on baking sheet, let rise for 30 minutes. Brush with egg wash and bake in preheated oven at 350F/160C, until lightly browned, about 30 minutes.

Bacon buns are eaten hot or cold.

MUSHROOM BUNS

Pyragėliai su grybais

1 k (lbs) flour

2 cups milk

30 g (1 oz) fresh yeast

4 tablespoons sugar

100 g (4 oz) butter

1 egg; salt

FILLING

1/2 l (4 cups) cooked mushrooms

50 g (2 oz) oil or butter

2 onions, finely chopped

2 tablespoons bread crumbs

Blend yeast with sugar and dissolve in warm milk. Add half flour, mix well. Sprinkle dough with flour, cover and let rise for 2 hours in a warm spot. Beat dough and add remaining flour, melted butter. Knead dough about 30 minutes, until dough does not stick to hands. Let rise for another hour.

To make filling fry onions, add finely chopped mushrooms, continue frying for 5 more minutes, add bread crumbs and heat for 3 more minutes.

Roll out dough to 1/2 inch thickness, cut dough rounds, place 1 teaspoon mushroom filling, fold round in half, press edges together, place on baking sheet. Let rise for about 1/2 hour, then brush with egg wash and bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, until browned, about 25 minutes.

These buns are eaten hot or cold.CHRISTMAS EVE BISCUITS

Kūčiukai

1/2 k (1 lb) flour; 1 cup milk

50 g (4 tablespoons) vegetable oil

20 g (4 teaspoons) fresh yeast

2 tablespoons poppy seed; 1/4 cup sugar

Blend yeast with sugar and dissolve in warm milk. Add half of the flour to yeast and mix well. Dust top of batter with flour, let rise in warm spot for 1
Beat dough, add remaining flour, oil and scalded poppy seed. Mix well and knead until dough is not sticky, about 30 minutes. Let rise in warm spot for 1 hour. Roll dough into 1cm/

1/2 inch thick rolls and cut into same lengths. Place dough pieces on floured baking sheet and bake in preheated oven at 350F/160C, until golden brown.

These biscuits are baked for Christmas Eve supper, when they are served with poppy seed milk.TWIGS

Žagarėliai

1/2 k (1 lb) flour with a pinch of salt

1/2 cup butter; 6 egg yolks

2 whole eggs; 30 g (2 tablespoons) sugar

1 cup sour cream; 30 g (1 oz) rum

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

powdered sugar; oil for deep frying

Blend yolks and 2 whole eggs with sugar until thick and lemon colored. Sift flour into eggs, add sour cream, vanilla and rum. Mix well. Beat dough with rolling pin, folding dough inward, until dough shows blisters. The more air is incorporated into dough, the lighter the twigs. Let dough rest in refrigerator for a couple of hours. Roll out dough very thin, cut into strips, 10 cm/3 inches long and 2 cm/1 1/2 inches wide, cut a slit in center, pull one end through slit. Heat oil in deep pot or deep fryer, to keep oil from foaming add 2 pieces raw potato. When the twig is placed into hot oil and rises to surface fast, this means that oil is at right temperature. Fry until golden brown on both sides. Drain twigs on paper towels or brown paper and dust with powdered sugar while still hot.HOLIDAY DONUTS

Spurgos

1 k (2 lbs) flour; 2 cups milk

100 g (3 oz) fresh yeast; 8 egg yolks

1 cup sugar; 30 g (1 oz) rum; 1 teaspoon salt

2 teaspoons vanilla extract; 2 tablespoons sugar

powdered sugar; oil for deep frying

Make dough with warm milk and one third of flour, add blended yeast with sugar, mix well. Cover and let rise for 1/2 hour. Beat egg yolks with salt, add to risen dough, mix well. Add melted butter, rum, vanilla and remaining flour. Mix well. Knead dough until it looses shine. Cover dough and let rise for 1 hour. Take walnut size pieces of dough and form round donuts, let rise. Heat oil, drop donuts and fry on both sides until golden brown, about 8 minutes for each side. Drain donuts on paper towels or brown paper, dust with powdered sugar while still warm. POPPY SEED COOKIES

Aguonų sausainiukai

1/2 l (2 cups) poppy seed; 3 whole eggs, beaten

1 cup flour; 2 tablespoons sour cream

2 tablespoons butter; 1/2 teaspoon baking soda

1 teaspoon vanilla extract; pinch of salt

sugar powder for dusting cookies

Process poppy seeds to a paste in food processor or blender. Add beaten eggs to poppy seed paste, sour cream beaten with baking soda, cooled melted butter, vanilla and flour. Blend all ingredients thoroughly. Drop dough by teaspoonful on paper lined cookie sheet. Bake cookies in preheated oven at 350F/180C, until cookies are golden brown, about 20-25 minutes. Dust cookies with powdered sugar.

OATMEAL PUDDING

Avižinis kisielius

1/2 k (1 lb) coarsely ground oat flour or oat meal

3 black rye bread crusts; 3 charcoal tablets

1 1/2 l (6 cups) water; pinch of salt

Stir flour in 4 cups of warm water, add bread crusts (for better fermentation), add charcoal to remove oat rancidity. Place in warm spot, let ferment for 12 hours. Pour off supernatant liquid, pour 2 cups of water over remaining solids and strain. Combine both liquids, add pinch of salt and stirring constantly cook until liquid thickens, about 5-8 minutes. Pour thickened liquid into a bowl and place in refrigerator until it gels.

This pudding is eaten with potatoes, fried bacon or with sweet water.

CRANBERRY PUDDING

Spanguolių drebučiai

2 cups cranberries; 1 cup sugar

1 cup potato starch

2 pieces of cinnamon

4 whole cloves

Place cranberries into a pot, pour enough water to cover, add cinnamon and cloves, heat until cranberries begin to break up. Remove from heat, put everything through food mill. There should be about 4 cups of juice and pulp. Return juice and pulp to pot, add sugar. Dissolve starch in chilled cranberry juice and add to pulp and juice. Bring to a gentle boil, stirring constantly, heat until the mixture becomes clear. Pour hot pudding into individual glass bowls, cool until it gels.

This is a favorite dessert.

BREAD

Duona

One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread. Rye bread is eaten every day for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Bread plays an important role in family holiday rituals and agrarian ceremonies. Lithuanians link many beliefs and magic with bread. One of them is the protective characteristic of bread, protection from fire and help in putting out fires. For protection a piece of bread is placed in the foundation when building a new house.

Bread is shown great respect, is called holy and is referred to in the feminine gender. If a piece of bread falls accidentally to the ground, it is picked up with reverence, kissed and eaten. This is done so that the home would never be without bread.

Two kinds of bread are traditional, plain fermented and scalded. Plain fermented bread has been baked from earliest times, while scalded bread has only been baked since the start of the 20th century. Plain bread ferments overnight but needs to be kneaded for a long time, while scalded bread fermentation takes almost 3 days.

Bread baking has been the honorable duty of the mistress of the house. This duty was passed on to the eldest daughter with special ceremonies. Mother would collect all bread
equipment and hand it over to the grown up daughter, together with a kiss. After the daughter baked her first loaf, mother gathered the entire family and invited the nearest neighbor to taste the daughter’s first bread. The first slice went to father, who then kissed his daughter and turned her and the bench she sat on towards the door. This meant that the daughter was prepared to be a homemaker, was ready for marriage.

Bread baking day was a very special day. Peace and quiet reigned in the home. If a visitor arrived on bread baking day, he had to remain until the bread was done. Nothing was loaned out on bread baking day, with the belief that the borrower would take away the bread’s good taste. Every homemaker is proud of the taste of her bread and proudly states that one’s own bread is tastier than somebody else’s cake. Even though very few homemakers bake bread at home now, they value the traditional belief that bread is more valuable than gold. BLACK RYE BREAD

Juoda ruginė duona

3 k (6 lbs) coarsely ground rye flour

1 l (1 quart) water

starter, salt

STARTER

1/2 k (1 lb) rye flour

50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast

1 l (1 quart) warm water

Starter is used to leaven black rye bread. Starter is usually a leftover of dough from the last bread baking. Just before baking, the saved piece of dough is dissolved in warm water and is added to the newly mixed dough. Should there be no starter a new starter is prepared before mixing new dough. Mix all starter ingredients, keep in a warm spot to ensure maximum fermentation. This starter should be ready in 24 hours. Starter gives bread an agreeable, pleasant sour taste. Every starter has its own particular taste. Some homemakers add sour milk in place of water.

To make dough, heat water to 100-110F/40-45C, pour half of the flour, starter and mix well. Sprinkle dough with flour and set in a warm spot to ferment. During fermentation the volume of dough will almost triple. Fermentation is complete after about 14 hours. Then beat dough, add remaining flour, salt and knead well. Smooth top of dough, dampen with wet hands, cover and set in warm spot to rise for about 3 hours.

Prepare baking pans by lining them with maple or cabbage leaves or dust with flour.

Form oblong loaves, smooth tops with damp hands. Bake in preheated oven at 400F/200C, for about 2-3 hours. Bread is done when it gives off a solid sound. Dampen tops of loaves with cold water, cover loaves with a light linen cloth and let cool at room temperature. Do not place freshly baked loaves in a cold place for that will cause the crust to separate.

Black rye bread remains fresh for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated.SCALDED RYE BREAD

Plikyta ruginė duona

2 k (4 lbs) rye flour

1 1/2 l (6 cups) water, scalding hot

1/2 cup caraway seed, salt

starter

dried cabbage or maple leaves to line baking pans

Take one third of the flour, scald with boiling water, mix well. Cover and let rest in warm spot. Dissolve starter in warm water and add to dough and mix well. Cover and let rest in warm spot about 24 hours. Fermenting dough needs to be beaten 4 or 5 times so that more air is incorporated into the dough. Extra air is needed for yeast activity.

When dough has reached full fermentation, add remaining flour, caraway seed, salt and knead until dough does not stick to hands. Cover and let rise for about 6 hours. Scalded bread needs longer rising.

Wet hands and form 2 small loaves, arrange leaves in baking pans or sprinkle pans with flour, place loaves in pans and bake in preheated oven at 400F/180C, for about 2 hours.

Remove loaves from oven, dampen tops, cover with linen cloth and set to cool.

Scalded bread has a sweet-sour taste and remains fresh for a long time.BREAD WITH YEAST

Duona su mielėmis

12 cups rye flour

3 tablespoons sugar

50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast

1 l (1 quart) whey, butter milk or water

pinch of salt

1/2 cup beer or water

1/2 cup caraway seed

Heat whey (butter milk or water) to 95F/30-35C, add yeast blended with sugar and let proof for 15 minutes. Add half of the flour, mix well, cover and let rise for 1 hour. Then add remaining flour, caraway seed, salt and knead until dough is not sticky. Cover dough, set in warm spot and let rise for about an hour. Wet hands and form 2 oblong loaves, place in leaf lined baking pans and set in warm spot for another rising. Before baking, paint tops with beer or water. Bake in preheated oven at 375F/190C, for about 2 hours. When bread is done paint tops again with water and cover with linen cloth until cooled. This will make a soft crust.BLACK RYE BREAD WITH POTATOES

Juoda ruginė duona su bulvėmis

10 k (20 lbs) rye flour

4 l (4 quarts) water

2 k (4 lbs) potatoes, cooked in their skins

100 g (3 oz) salt

starter

Peel and rice potatoes. Mix one third of the flour with starter, riced potatoes and mix well with water heated to 95F/35C. Sprinkle top of dough with flour and place in warm spot to ferment. Add remaining flour and proceed with same steps as for ordinary bread.

BARLEY ROLLS

Miežinis ragaišis

1 k (2 lbs) coarsely milled barley flour

3 cups water (or milk or whey)

10 g (2 teaspoons) yeast

10 g (2 teaspoons) salt

50 g (2 0z) sugar

Dissolve yeast in sweetened, warm liquid, add one third of the flour and mix well. Sprinkle with flour and set at room temperature overnight. Next morning beat mixture, add remaining flour, salt and knead well. Rest dough for another rising. Make form on bran
sprinkled surface, let rise. Bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, until rolls are golden brown. Remove rolls from oven and rub with fat.

These rolls replace regular bread on feast days.

Some homemakers add just 2 or 3 cooked potatoes and use milk to make a soft dough. These rolls are tastiest when eaten fresh out of the oven.

WHEAT BREAD

Kvietinis ragaišis

1 k (2 lbs) coarsely milled wheat flour

3 cups water or milk

50 g (2 oz) sugar

20 g (4 teaspoons) fresh yeast

2 teaspoons salt

Mix yeast with sugar and dissolve in warm liquid. Add one third of flour, mix well and set in warm spot to rise. Beat yeast dough, add salt and remaining flour and knead well. Brush top of dough with fat to keep it from drying out as it rises. Form large, round rolls on a bran sprinkled surface. Let rise and paint with egg wash before placing in preheated oven, bake at 350F/180C, until rolls are nicely browned.

POTATOES

Bulvës

Potatoes came to Lithuania relatively recently, in the eighteenth century and soon became popular. Now every farm grows potatoes. Potatoes have become Lithuania’s second bread, an essential starch staple and are eaten throughout the year.

Many delicious, tasty dishes are made with potatoes. They are eaten alone or as an accompaniment to a main course of soup, meat, fish, mushrooms, eggs and dairy products.

The most popular potato dishes are „zeppelins“, potato sausages, potato casserole and pancakes.

Lithuanian recipes reflect the diversity of potatoes.

POTATOES COOKED IN THEIR JACKETS

Neluptos virtos bulvës

1 k (2 lbs) well scrubbed potatoes

1 tablespoon caraway seed

1 teaspoon sugar

1 teaspoon salt

fresh or dried dill to taste

Bring a pot of water to a boil and add potatoes with all the seasonings. Cover and cook until potatoes are done. Drain potatoes and return to the stove until potatoes are dry.

Cooked potatoes in their jackets can be the main course when served with different sauces, or as an accompaniment to a main course. SAUCES SERVED WITH POTATOES:

Padaþai prie bulviø

BACON SAUCE

Spirguèiø padaþas

300 g (9 oz) bacon, cut into medium pieces

2 tablespoons flour

1/2 l (2 cups) milk

1 onion, finely chopped

Fry bacon, until crisp. Add onion, flour and milk, stirring gently. Simmer on low heat until sauce thickens.

SOUR CREAM SAUCE

Grietinës padaþas

1/2 l (2 cups) sour cream

2 tablespoons finely grated onion

pepper and salt to taste

Mix sour cream, onion, salt and pepper.

ONION AND SOUR CREAM SAUCE

Svogûnø-grietinës padaþas

1/2 l (2 cups) sour cream

3 onions, finely chopped

salt and pepper to taste

Add onion to sour cream, mix well, season with salt and pepper and set aside for an hour or two, to allow flavors to develop.

HEMP SEED SAUCE

Kanapiø padaþas

2 cups hemp seed

50 g (4 tablespoons) butter

1 onion, finely chopped

1 boiled potato

salt and pepper to taste

Soak hemp seed in water for 2-3 hours. Cook hemp seed. Saute onion in butter. Process hemp seed, onion and boiled potato in food processor or put through a food grinder. Adjust seasonings to taste.

RED SAUCE

Raudonas padaþas

1/2 l (2 cups) fermented beet juice

2 teaspoons flour

1 finely grated onion

salt and pepper to taste

Gently heat fermented beet juice and stirring constantly add flour, onion, salt and pepper. Bring to a gentle boil, heat until sauce thickens.

MINT SAUCE

Mëtø padaþas

1/2 l (2 cups) milk

2 tablespoons finely chopped peppermint

2 tablespoons butter or bacon fat

1 tablespoon flour

1 onion, finely chopped

Bring 1/2 cup of milk to a boil. Blend flour in 1/2 cup of cold milk, then stirring constantly add to boiling milk. Add mint, butter or bacon fat, onion, salt and pepper. Bring to a gentle boil, stir while sauce thickens.

SEASONED POTATO SAUCE

Èiolakas

4 potatoes, peeled

2 onions, finely chopped

1 cup potato water

powdered bay leaf

fresh dill, several sprigs finely chopped

scallion greens, finely chopped

pepper and salt to taste

Cook potatoes in salted water. Save some cooking water. Mash cooked potatoes, add onions crushed with salt, mix well. Add pepper, bay leaf and 1 cup potato cooking water. Blend well.

This is traditionally served with hot potatoes as a late afternoon snack, in Dzškija, the south eastern region of Lithuania.

SOUR POTATO SAUCE

Patermesas

2 potatoes, peeled and cooked

2 tablespoons sour cream

1/2 cup sour milk or yogurt

1 teaspoon caraway seed

1 onion, finely chopped

salt to taste

Mash potatoes and add sour cream and sour milk or yogurt. Mix well. Season potato mixture with caraway seed, chopped onion and salt. Mix well.

This is eaten in eemaitija, Samogitia, the western part of Lithuania.

SAUERKRAUT JUICE AND MUSHROOM

Kopûstø rûgðtis su grybais

1 cup salted mushrooms

1 onion, finely chopped

1/2 cup sauerkraut juice

1/2 teaspoon powdered bay leaf

pepper to taste

Soak mushrooms in water to remove excess salt, then cook them. When mushrooms are done, slice and add onion, bay leaf, pepper and sauerkraut juice. Mix well.

COTTAGE SAUCE

Darytinis

200 g (1 cup) dry cottage cheese

200 g (1 cup) sour cream or yogurt

salt to taste

Add cottage cheese to sour cream or yogurt, beat well until smooth, season with salt.

A favorite sauce with potatoes in Aukätaitija, the Highlands of Lithuania.

FERMENTED SAUCE

Degtienë

2 cups coarse rye flour

a handful of dried apples,
rehydrated and

cut into small pieces

2 cups of water

1 tablespoon sugar

Mixture all the ingredients, beat well and let rest, covered for 48 hours.

SEASONED RED SAUCE

Ðmotalas

3 potatoes, peeled and cooked

2 onions, finely chopped

1 garlic clove, minced

2 tablespoons sour cream

1 cup sour milk or yogurt

2 medium cooked beets, cut into thin strips

salt and pepper to taste

Mash cooked potatoes, add sour cream or yogurt and mix well. Complete the sauce by adding onion, garlic, beets, salt and pepper to taste. Mix well, allowing beets to release their color.

MUSHROOM SAUCE

Grybainis

1/2 l (2 cups) salted or fresh mushrooms

2 cups milk

1 onion, finely chopped

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

1 cooked potato

salt and pepper to taste

Cook salted or fresh mushrooms in milk. Saute onion in oil until golden brown. In a food processor, process cooked mushrooms and potato, add fried onion, process again. Add salt and pepper to taste. POTATOES WITH BUTTER AND EGGS

Bulvës su sviestu ir kiauðiniais 10 potatoes, peeled and cooked

1 tablespoon butter

2 hard boiled eggs, finely chopped

1 tablespoon sour cream

Melt butter and add chopped eggs and sour cream. Mix well. Pour over cooked potatoes.

These potatoes are eaten for breakfast and are delicious with boiled fish. BAKED POTATOES

Keptos bulvës

10 potatoes, peeled

vegetable oil

caraway seed

salt to taste

Cut peeled potatoes in half, soak them in oil. Place oiled potatoes into baking dish, sprinkle with salt and caraway seed and bake in preheated oven at 350 F/180 C, until done and nicely browned.

These potatoes are eaten with sour milk or yogurt for supper or served with hot entrees. POTATOES WITH BACON

Bulvës su laðiniukais

5 potatoes, peeled

100 g (3 oz) bacon, cut into medium pieces

1 onion, diced

salt and pepper to taste

Cut off one end of the potato and scoop out the inside, leaving enough potato so it holds its shape. Fill potatoes with bacon and onion, season with salt and pepper. Close the potatoes with cut off pieces and stand in a greased baking dish. Bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 20-25 minutes.

These potatoes are eaten hot with sauerkraut or with sour milk or yogurt. In the old days, shepherds baked such potatoes, but in their jackets, in bonfire embers. UNPEELED POTATOES WITH MEAT STUFFING

Mësa ádarytos neskustos bulvës

8 potatoes, well scrubbed

250 g (1/2 lb) ground pork

1 onion, finely chopped

100 g (6 tablespoons) butter

salt and pepper to taste

Cut potatoes in half, lengthwise and scoop out centers. Fry onion in butter and add to ground pork, seasoned with salt and pepper. Fill potato halves and place into baking dish, one on top of the other. Bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C for about 30-45 minutes.

This is eaten for lunch with melted butter or sour cream. POTATOES WITH HEMP SEED

Bulvës su kanapëmis

10 potatoes, peeled

1 cup hemp seed

1 onion, finely chopped

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

salt and freshly ground pepper to taste

Cook potatoes in salted water. Saute hemp seed in skillet until crisp, then grind or process in food processor. Return hemp powder to skillet, saute in oil with onion, salt and pepper. Pour the hemp mixture over boiled potatoes and shake well.

Such potatoes are eaten in Samogitia. POTATOES SIMMERED WITH APPLES AND PRUNES

Bulvës troðkintos su obuoliais ir slyvomis

10 potatoes, peeled and diced

5 apples or 1 cup dried apples

1/2 cup prunes

100 g (3 oz) bacon, finely diced

1 onion, finely chopped

1 cup sour cream

1 teaspoon caraway seed

salt and pepper to taste

Place diced potatoes and bacon into cooking pot, add a little water and bring to a gentle simmer. When potatoes are soft, after about 10 minutes add finely cut apples, prunes, onion, caraway, pepper, salt and sour cream. Cover and simmer for 10 more minutes.

These potatoes are eaten with sauerkraut. POTATO AND MUSHROOM CASSEROLE

Bulviø ir grybø apkepas

10 potatoes, peeled

1 cup dried porcini mushrooms

2 onions, diced

3 eggs, beaten

100 g (6 tablespoons) butter

5 tablespoons sour cream

salt and pepper to taste

Slice potatoes and cook for 3-5 minutes, drain when done. Cook mushrooms after soaking for 2 hours. When done, slice thinly. Layer potatoes, onions, mushrooms and eggs in a greased casserole, making potatoes the top layer. Add salt and pepper to 1 cup of mushroom boiling water, add sour cream, mix well and pour over the top of the potato casserole. Bake at 350F/180C for about 30 minutes.

This is eaten for lunch with sauerkraut or dill pickles and melted butter. POTATO AND GROUND MEAT CASSEROLE

Bulviø ir maltos mësos apkepas

10 potatoes, peeled and sliced

1/2 k (1 lb) ground meat, pork, beef or veal

1 raw egg

1 onion diced

50 g (4 tablespoons) butter

5 dried porcini mushrooms

1/2 cup sour cream

1 tablespoons bread crumbs

salt and pepper to taste

Cook potatoes in salted water for about 15 minutes, drain. Saute onion and mix with ground meat together with raw egg, salt and pepper. Mix well. Cook soaked mushrooms in a small amount of water, when mushrooms are done cut into thin strips and place in 1 cup of boiling liquid. Put half of the boiled potatoes into a greased casserole dish, add meat mixture and cover with remaining potatoes, end with layer of mushrooms in their cooking juice. Sprinkle top
crumbs. Bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 10 minutes.

This is eaten for lunch, with sauerkraut or pickled cucumbers. A HERBED SIMMER

Troðkë

10 potatoes, peeled

1 cup sour cream

1 cup butter milk

1/2 cup chopped onion greens or scallions

2-3 branches fresh dill, finely chopped

2-3 branches fresh parsley, finely chopped

1/2 teaspoon marjoram

salt to taste

Cook potatoes in salted water. Mix sour cream and butter milk in a bowl. Add scallions, dill, parsley and marjoram. Mix well, salt to taste. Pour this sauce over cooked, drained potatoes, and heat on low heat.

This dish is much enjoyed by southern Lithuanians, living in Suvalkija region. They prepare this casserole for lunch and eat it with cold beet soup, sour milk or sour pickles. Early summer potatoes make this dish especially tasty. POTATO AND HERRING CASSEROLE

Bulviø ir silkiø troðkinys

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled and sliced

3 whole herring

2 onions, finely chopped

1 cup sour cream

1 tablespoon butter

pepper to taste

Can use either herring fillets or whole herring. The whole herring need to be desalted by soaking in cold water. After desalting the whole herring, gut, skin, bone, fillet and cut into 2 cm/1 in. pieces. Place a layer of sliced potatoes in a greased casserole dish, sprinkle with pepper, spread onion on top and cover with melted butter. Follow this with a layer of herring pieces, top with another layer of potatoes. Continue to layer herring and potatoes, ending with potato layer. Cover with sour cream and bake at 350F/180C in a preheated oven for 30 minutes. Serve with horseradish sauce. MUSH

Kiunkë

1/2 l (2 cups) dried green peas

3 medium potatoes, peeled and cut into pieces

50 g (1/4 cup; 2 oz) bacon, chopped

1 onion, finely chopped

1 l (4 cups) water

Soak peas for several hours, then cook until soft. Cook potatoes. When potatoes

are almost done add peas and continue cooking until both are done. Drain and mash potatoes and peas together. Fry bacon and onion together and pour over the potato-pea mush.

This is breakfast food in Samogitia, western Lithuania. It is served with sauerkraut and with sour milk in summer. MUSH WITH FAVA BEANS

Kiunkë su pupomis

1/2 l (2 cups) dried fava beans

3 medium potatoes, peeled and cut into pieces

salt to taste

Soak favas for several hours, then cook until soft. Cook potatoes in small amount of water. Drain favas and potatoes and mash both together, salt to taste.

This mush is served for breakfast with sour milk, dill pickles or sauerkraut. On hot summer days this is an accompaniment to beer. MUSH WITH SAUERKRAUT

Kiunkë su kopûstais

1/2 k (1 lb) potatoes,

peeled and cut into pieces

1 k (2 cups) sauerkraut

1 onion, chopped

300 g (9 oz) bacon,

chopped

salt to taste

Place potatoes into boiling water and when they are soft add rinsed sauerkraut and continue cooking for another 15 minutes. Drain and give the potato-cabbage mix a good shake. Fry bacon and add onion when bacon begins to brown, continue frying until onion is golden. Pour over potato-cabbage mix and shake well.

This mush is served as a late afternoon snack, especially during summer. It is also served with meat dishes GRATED POTATO CAKE

Kugelis

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled

1 cup milk

2 eggs, beaten

2 onions, finely chopped

salt to taste

butter or oil for frying onion

Grate potatoes, remove some of the potato juice, tilt the bowl and spoon off the collected juice. Bring milk to a boil and pour over the grated potatoes. This is done to disperse potato starch through the grated potatoes. Fry onion and mix into potatoes, add eggs and salt and mix well. Pour the mixture into a medium depth, greased baking dish and bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, until the top is well browned.

Cut into squares and serve with bacon fried with onions and sour cream. POTATO CAKE WITH BACON – KUGEL

Bulviø plokðtainis su spirguèiais

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled

300 g (9 oz) bacon,

finely chopped

2 eggs, beaten

2 onions, grated

salt and pepper to taste

Grate potatoes and remove most of the juice (see previous recipe). Fry bacon and add to potatoes. Mix well. The hot bacon fat helps disperse potato starch. Add onions, eggs and salt and pepper, mix well. Pour potato gratings into a greased, 4 finger deep, baking dish, bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 2 hours. SEASONED SALTS SERVED WITH BOILED POTATOES

FLAX SEED SALT

Spirgynë

1 cup flax seed

1 onion,

finely chopped

salt to taste

Fry flax seed in a greaseless skillet. A cast iron skillet is preferable. Process fried seed in a food processor, add onion and salt. Process again.

HEMP SEED SALT

Spirgynë

1 cup hemp seeds

1 onion, finely chopped

salt to taste

Fry hemp seeds together with onion and salt. When seeds and onion are gently browned, grind or process to a fine meal, using a mortar and pestle or a food processor.

POTATO CAKE WITH PORK – KUGEL

Bulviø plokðtainis su kiauliena

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes

300 g (9 oz) pork filet,

cut into small cubes

1 cup milk

2 onions, finely chopped

2 eggs, beaten

1/2 teaspoon marjoram

salt to taste

butter or oil for frying meat

Grate potatoes and remove potato juice. Bring milk to a boil and mix into grated potatoes. Add eggs to potatoes, plus marjoram, salt and onion. Fry meat until cubes are nicely browned.
Grease a baking dish, pour a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat cubes. Top meat with final layer of potatoes. Bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 1-1 1/2 hours.

Cut potato cake into medium size pieces and serve with melted butter, fried bacon pieces or sour cream. POTATO CAKE WITH PIGS FEET

Bulviø plokðtainis su kiaulës kojelëmis

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled

2 pigs feet, about 1/2 k (1 lb)

100 g (3 oz) bacon, finely chopped

1 onion, grated

2 garlic cloves, minced

salt and pepper to taste

Grate potatoes, pour off potato liquid. Add fried bacon, onion, garlic, salt and pepper. Mix well to blend all ingredients. Wash pigsÕ feet, cut lengthwise in half and parboil. Place parboiled pigsÕ feet in greased baking dish and cover with grated potato mixture. Bake in a preheated oven at 400F/200C, for about 1 1/2-2 hours.

Cut into oblong pieces so that there is a piece of meat in each portion and serve with fried

bacon bits. POTATO CAKE WITH CHICKEN

Bulviø plokðtainis su viðtiena

3 k (6 lbs) potatoes

1 k (2 lbs)) boneless chicken pieces

300 g (9 oz) butter

2 onions, grated

2 eggs, beaten

2 garlic cloves, minced

salt and pepper to taste

bread crumbs

Cut chicken into small pieces and parboil in salted water for 15 minutes. Sprinkle the cooked, drained chicken with minced garlic. Grate potatoes and remove much of the potato liquid, add eggs, onion, salt and pepper. Mix well to blend flavors. Grease a baking dish, sprinkle with bread crumbs and pour a layer of potato mixture. Place chicken pieces on top of first potato layer and cover with remaining potato mixture. Bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 1 1/2-2 hours.

Cut into square pieces, try to keep meat in the center of each piece. Serve hot with melted butter. POTATO CAKE WITH DRIED MUSHROOMS

Bulviø plokðtainis su dþiovintais grybais

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes

100 g (3 oz) bacon, finely cut

1/2 l (2 cups) cooked,

finely cut dried mushrooms

2 eggs, beaten

2 onions, finely chopped

1 teaspoon peppermint

salt and pepper to taste

Grate potatoes and remove some of the potato liquid, then add pepper, mint and mushrooms. Fry bacon with onion and add to potato mixture, mix well. Add eggs and mix well. Pour potato mixture into a greased baking dish, bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, for about 1 hour.

When done, cut into medium squares. Serve hot out of the oven or reheated with melted butter or sour cream. POTATO CAKE WITH COTTAGE CHEESE

Bulviø plokðtainis su varðke

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes

300 g (1 1/2 cups) dry cottage cheese

2 eggs, beaten

1 cup milk

50 g (2 oz) bacon, chopped

1 tablespoon sour cream

100 g (6 tablespoons) butter

1 teaspoon French tarragon

1 teaspoon sugar

pinch of salt

Grate potatoes and remove most of the potato liquid. Bring milk to a boil and pour into grated potatoes. Mix well. Fry bacon and add to potato mixture. Blend cottage cheese with eggs, sugar, salt and tarragon. Blend well. Grease baking dish and pour a first layer with 1/2 potato mixture. Cover potato layer with cottage cheese mix and top with remaining potato mixture. Bake for 1 hour in a preheated oven at 350F/180C.

Serve with melted butter or sour cream. ZEPPELINS

Didþkukuliai (cepelinai)

1 k (2 lbs) raw potatoes, peeled and grated

4 cooked potatoes

salt to taste

Put raw potato gratings in a double cheese cloth and squeeze dry. Save the potato liquid, let potato starch settle at the bottom, decant potato liquid and mix starch with dry potato gratings. Rice boiled potatoes and add to raw grated potatoes, salt and blend well. Take about 1/2 cup of potato mixture and flatten, making a round form. Place a spoonful of filling in the center of the round, fold over, seal seam, make an oblong shape. Put OzeppelinsÕ into boiling water and cook for about 30 minutes, stirring gently.

OZeppelinsÕ are a rather recent Lithuanian tradition. They were begun in the middle of the twentieth century but their fame spread all throughout the country. OZeppelinsÕ are very filling and for this reason they are eaten during days of hard work, especially during harvest time. The variety of fillings used makes OzeppelinsÕ adaptable to different times of the year. FILLINGS FOR ZEPPELINS:

BEEF OR PORK FILLING

300 g (9 oz) ground meat, pork or beef, or a mixture of both

1 onion, finely chopped

1 teaspoon marjoram

Pork is the traditional meat filling for zeppelins, rather fat, cut from the shoulder. A mixture of pork and fat is also used.

Fry onion and add to ground meat. Season with salt, pepper and marjoram. Blend well. Meat filled OzeppelinsÕ are served with fried bacon bits or with melted butter and sour cream.

SMOKED HAM FILLING

300 g (9 oz) smoked ham

1 onion, finely chopped

1 egg, beaten

pepper to taste

Soak ham, then place in hot water and boil until done. Cut cooked ham into fine pieces, add onion, egg and pepper. Mix well.

Ham filled zeppelins are served with melted butter and sour cream.

COTTAGE CHEESE FILLING

300 g (9 oz) dry cottage cheese

1 egg, beaten

1 tablespoon sour cream

30 g (1 oz) bacon, finely chopped and fried

30 g (1 oz) butter

1/2 teaspoon French tarragon or peppermint

salt to taste

Blend cottage cheese with fried bacon, add butter, sour cream, egg, salt and herbs. Mix well.

Cottage cheese OzeppelinsÕ are eaten with melted butter, sour cream or fried bacon
MUSHROOM FILLING

50 g (2 oz) dried mushrooms

2 onions, finely chopped

100 g (3 oz) bacon

1 egg, beaten

2 tablespoons bread crumbs

salt and pepper to taste

Soak dried mushrooms and cook in soaking water. Then process mushrooms and bacon together in food processor or use a grinder. Add fried onions, egg, bread crumbs and seasonings. Blend well.

Mushroom filled OzeppelinsÕ are served with fried bacon or sour cream.

In Dzškija, the south eastern region of country, the cooks make the following sauce: fry chopped onion in butter, add 1 tablespoon flour and enough mushroom soaking liquid, season to taste with pepper and bring to a boil, heat until sauce thickens.

HERRING FILLING

2 herring fillets

1 egg, beaten

1 onion, finely chopped

2 tablespoons bread crumbs

pepper to taste

Process herring fillets in food processor, or use grinder. Season with pepper, add fried onion and beaten egg. Mix well to blend flavors.

Serve with sour cream.

PLAIN POTATO PANCAKES

Paprasti bulviniai blynai

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled

2 eggs, beaten

pinch of salt

vegetable oil or lard for frying

Grate potatoes, add eggs and pinch of salt. Mix well. Fry in hot oil.

These pancakes are eaten for breakfast or lunch with fried bacon or sour cream. POTATO PANCAKES WITH SCALDED MILK

Bulviniai blynai plikyti pienu

2 k (4 lbs) potatoes, peeled

3 eggs

1 cup milk

vegetable oil for frying

Grate potatoes and remove some of the potato liquid. Bring milk to a boil and pour into grated potatoes. Mix well. Add egg yolks, salt to potatoes, mix well. Beat egg whites and gently fold into potatoes. Drop by large spoonful into hot oil, bake on both sides until crisp.

These pancakes are eaten with bacon, sour cream, melted butter, lingonberry preserves or cottage cheese. SEASONED POTATO PANCAKES

Bulviniai blynai su prieskoniais

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled and grated

2 onions, grated

2 eggs, beaten

2 tablespoons flour

salt and pepper to taste; fat for frying

Mix grated potatoes with grated onion, add flour, salt, pepper and eggs. Blend all ingredients. Drop by spoonfuls into hot fat and fry on both sides until crisp.

Serve with sour cream, butter. The Samogitians eat seasoned pancakes with their special butter, kastinys. POPPY SEED POTATO PANCAKES

Bulviniai blynai su aguonomis

10 potatoes, peeled and grated

1 cup whole poppy seeds

1 cup cream of wheat, uncooked

2 eggs, beaten

1/4 teaspoon ground allspice

pinch of salt

fat for frying, preferably vegetable oil

Mix grated potatoes with poppy seed, uncooked cream of wheat, beaten eggs, salt and allspice. Blend all ingredients. Fry in hot oil.

Serve hot with sour cream blended with sugar and cinnamon. COTTAGE CHEESE POTATO PANCAKES

Bulviniai blynai su varäke

10 potatoes, peeled and grated

3 eggs, beaten

200 g (1 cup) dry cottage cheese

1/2 cup flour

salt and pepper to taste

fat for frying

Mix grated potatoes with flour, eggs, cottage cheese, salt and pepper. Blend all ingredients. Drop by spoonful into hot fat, fry on both sides until crisp.

Serve with sour cream, sugar, apple sauce or fruit preserves. HAM-ONION POTATO PANCAKES

Bulviniai blynai su kumpiu ir svogûnais

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled and grated

100 g (3 oz) smoked ham, finely chopped

1 egg, beaten; 1 onion, grated

Mix grated potatoes and onion. Add egg and ham. Blend well. Place tablespoonfuls in hot fat, brown both sides.

Serve with sour cream, for breakfast or lunch. POTATO PANCAKES BAKED ON CABBAGE LEAVES

Bandos

8 raw potatoes, peeled and grated

3 boiled potatoes, riced

100 g (3 oz) bacon, chopped

3 tablespoons sour cream

salt to taste

Remove some of the potato liquid and mix raw and boiled potatoes, add salt to taste. Place 3 tablespoons of potato mix on cabbage leaf, spread evenly. Bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C until nicely browned and crisp. When the pancakes, bandos are done, peel off cabbage leaves, pile the pancakes on top of each other, in a deep casserole, cover with fried bacon, sour cream and return to oven for 10 minutes to soften and make pancakes more flavorful.

The Samogitians, eemai‹iai bake these pancakes in the morning during potato harvest. Their sour cream covered pancakes are kept in a warm oven till lunchtime, when they are eaten.

The Highlanders, Aukätai‹iai and people in the south eastern region Dzškija, call these pancakes bandos, a word used to describe herds of cattle. They eat bandos for breakfast with fried bacon, sour cream and creamed cottage cheese. POTATO PUFFS

Bulvinës bandelës

8 potatoes, peeled and grated

1/2 l (2 cups) sour milk or yogurt

4 cups flour

salt to taste

Drain some potato juice from grated potatoes, add sour milk or yogurt, 1 cup flour and mix well. Let rest overnight. In the morning add remaining 3 cups flour, salt and blend well until dough is of a good consistency. Form flat buns and bake on greased cookie sheets in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, until nicely browned.

Serve hot with fried bacon and sour cream for breakfast. COTTAGE CHEESE POTATO PUFFS

Kepti bulviniai varðkëèiai

8 raw potatoes, peeled and grated

200 g (1 cup) dry cottage cheese

1 egg, beaten

2 tablespoons sour cream

salt to taste

Drain some potato juice from grated potatoes, add cottage cheese, egg, salt and mix well. Make small buns and place on a greased cookie sheet. Paint
buns with an egg wash and bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, until nicely browned. Place baked buns in a deep baking dish, cover with hot butter and sour cream sauce. Cover and place in a warm oven for 10 minutes.

These puffs are eaten as a mid afternoon snack, especially during summer. POTATO SAUSAGES

Bulviniai vëdarai

1 k (2 lbs) potatoes, peeled and grated

200 g (1 cup) bacon, finely chopped

2 onions, chopped; 1/2 teaspoon marjoram

salt and pepper to taste; natural pork casings

Fry bacon and onion, add to grated potatoes. Add seasonings and mix well. Fill pork casings with potato mixture and place sausages into a greased baking dish with 1/2 inch layer of water. Prick sausages with a needle so that they do not break as they expand while baking. Bake in a preheated oven at 350F/180C, until sausages are nicely browned, baste several times with baking liquid, while sausages are baking.

They are served for lunch with fried bacon.

Potato sausages are very popular throughout Lithuania, and are often prepared during pig slaughtering. POTATO AND SAUERKRAUT SIMMER

Bulvës troðkintos su kopûstais

10 potatoes, cooked in their jackets

200 g (1 cup) bacon, thinly sliced

1 cup sauerkraut

2 onions, finely chopped

1/2 teaspoon pepper

salt to taste

Peel potatoes and cut into thick slices. Fry thinly sliced bacon. Remove bacon from frying pan and layer the pan with sliced potatoes, with fried bacon, onions and top with sauerkraut. Cover frying pan and cook at low heat for about 15 minutes.

This is served with sour milk or yogurt for dinner or as a late afternoon meal. POTATO AND HERRING CASSEROLE

Bulviø ir silkiø apkepas

10 potatoes, boiled in their skins

3 whole, cured herring

2 onions, chopped

1 egg, beaten

50 g (4 tablespoons) butter, melted

2 tablespoons bread crumbs

Peel and slice potatoes. Soak herring in water to remove excess salt, bone and cut into small pieces. Fry onion in oil then mix with herring pieces. Grease baking dish, layer potatoes, herring, potatoes. Pour melted butter over final layer and pour egg on top. Sprinkle top with bread crumbs. Bake in preheated oven at 300F/150C for about 15 minutes.

Serve for dinner with pickled beets or cucumbers. POTATO AND SMOKED HAM CASSEROLE

Bulviø ir rûkyto kumpio apkepas

10 potatoes, boiled in their skins

100 g (6 tablespoons) butter

2 tablespoons sour cream; 2 eggs, beaten

200 g (6 oz) smoked ham, finely chopped

1/4 teaspoon pepper

salt to taste

Peel potatoes and rice them. Add 1 tablespoon butter, sour cream, eggs, chopped ham and seasonings. Mix well. Place potato mixture into a greased casserole dish and bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, until top is golden brown, about 25-30 minutes.

To serve for dinner pour melted butter on top of each serving and accompany with sauerkraut or pickled cucumbers. POTATO CASSEROLE WITH MEAT AND CABBAGE

Bulviø apkepas su kopûstais ir mësa

10 potatoes, peeled and cooked

1/2 l (2 cups) hot milk

1/2 k (1 lb) fresh cabbage; 1 egg

200 g (3/4 cup) cooked meat, pork

50 g (2 oz) butter 1 onion, finely cho