THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of north America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA is borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico.
Mountain rangres cross the country from north to south and don’t protect it from the north and warm ear from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
3.Riches of the USA:
Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals from solid Base from development of America industry.
The USA is divided into free arias: Eastern area a highland, central area a plain and Western area which is Mountains and includes the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huren, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario, Erie. There are connected by channels cut by rapids one of them the Niagara Falls.
The Mississippi together with the Missouri is the longest river in the world. The rivers of the west are unsuitable for navigation. The largest of them are Colombia and Colorado rivers.
PART 2 National Economy.
The USA is a hardly developed capitalistic country. Heavy industry prevails in the USA, including such branches as the mining , metallurgical, engineering out chemical industries. Being well developed light industry includes, textile, leather and footwear industries. The food industry is also well developed.
As agriculture both animal husbeudry and arally farming are prominent in the economy of the USA.
1. The Commonwealth of Australia is a self governing federal state. It is situated in the south-west of the Pacific ocean, occupying the continent of Australia and a great number of islands of which Tasmania is the most important. Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian and the Pacific Oceans.
2. The country consists of 6 (six) states and 2 (two) territories. 16 million people live in Australia. The capital is Canberra. The official language is English.
3. Australia has a Parliament has two chambers, the house of Representatives and the Senate. the government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister.
4. Australia is not only far from the rest of the world, it has a bad climate, too. The climate is better in the east and south-east, where most big cities have grown-up. But the northern coast has too much rain, and the western coast is too dry.
5. The highest part of Australia, and almost all the mountains are near the coast. The whole central part of the country is dry; it never rains, there are no large rivers and no water there. So there is no very rich plant life in Australia, except in the east and south-east.
6. Australia is an important producer and exporter of primary products: wool, meat, sugar, fruit, black, coal, iron, copper, lead, gold and so on.
7. Most of the factories are situated near big cities. There are 5 (five) big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and bris bane. These cities are also the country’s main ports.
8. Canberra was specially planned as a capital. It is a quiet city. All the government buildings are situated there. There no industrial plants in the city. About 300000 people live in Canberra.
9. Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. It was founded in 1788. Sydney is a big industrial centre. About 3 million people now live in the city.
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island is situated on the British Isles not far from Europe. It consists of the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of Ireland and a great number of small islands. Such as: the Orkney, the Hebrides, the Isle of White and many others.
2. If you look at the map of Europe you will see that Great Britain is not large. It takes 6 hours to travel in a fast train, from London, the capital of England, to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. And the June from London to Plymouth takes a little over 4 hours by train.
3. There are 4 part of Great Britain England, the capital is London, Scotland the capital is Edinburg, Wales the capital is Cardiff and Northern Island the capital is Belfast. Great Britain lies not far from continent. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea and England Channel. The channel in it’s narrowest part The Strate of Dover is only 32 kilometres.
4. Great Britain has a very good geographical position, as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the World.
The sea connects Britain with most European countries such as: Belgium,
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Russia and some other countries. The main sea route from Europe to America also passed through the channel.
5. British climate is mild and damp. It often rains frogs are quitrequent especially in the West and south-west. The Gulf Stream a warm ocean current warms to seas around the British coast moderating the climate, giving it cold Summers mild winters. The temperature in winter seldom falls below zero and the field and meadow are green all year round.
Russia occupy a large territory. It stretch almost 10 000 (ten thousand) kilometres from east to west and nearly 5 000 (five thousand) kilometres from north to south. It’s population is 150 000 000 (one hundred and fifty) million people.
From spring till autumn the sun never
sets over Russia: in Kaliningrad people see it sitting in the Baltic, while in Kamchatka it rises out of the Pacific Ocean at the some time. People in our country see the New Year in eleven times in one night.
If you begin to travel in the Far East by air and fly 8 000 (eight thousand)kilometres towards the west, you will land in Moscow on the same hour same day that you left the Far East.
It is a wonderful sight you see our country from the plane. One can hardly imagine a country more interesting to travellers than Russia.
Siberia covers millions of square kilometres. You fly over mountain, endless forests, large and small rivers, railways, motorways. You leave behind the lights of young and small towns, plants and factories. Siberia is a region of untold riches.
Father West are the Ural Mountains the border between Asia and Europe. The Urals are riche in different minerals.
The country’s European part covers the territory from Urals to the Baltic Sea. The largest cities of the Russia are situated between the Black Sea in the south and the Black Sea in the north. Such an our country from East to West. There is no over countries in which the climate differs so much from one part to another. When it is still winter in the northern regions of our country the first warm days arrive in the south. In the central regions show storms and cold are still in power, while in the south people begin to think of spring crops. In the same season nature looks different in different parts of our country.
Russia is rich in oil, coal, iron, gold, silver and other minerals.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAN.
The English are great lovers of sport; and they are neither playing nor watching games, they like to talk about them. However, there is important thing about sport in Britain which we must know. Today, an big sports is professional and famous players can make a lot of money.
et’s take Football for example. It is the most popular team game in Britain. It is played in most of the schools, and there are thousands of amateur teams for young man in all parts of the country. But for most of the public, football is a professionals games which is watched on Saturday afternoons at the stadium.
Professional football is big business. Every large town has one or more professional clubs.
Rugby football is played with an oval ball which may be carried. The players in the other team try to stop the man running with the ball by throwing him to the ground. There are fifteen players in each team.
Sports competition get big crowds in Great Britain. All people in Great Britain are fond of sport and Englishman know is they train hard Sport will make them strong and healthy.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He is always finding out more about the world around him. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. The more we know the more interested we are in the world around. Each pupil ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is so important in our life and for the good of society. The activities of the school day afford different opportunities for the pupils to participate in some useful work. They give opportunities to develop good work habits and writing compositions gives us opportunities to develop speaking, reading and writing skills.
I am interested in Mathematics , I tried my best to be good at them. I think that chemistry is hard. I believe my efforts in my further studies will be successful. All kinds of activities the pupils participate in are valuable to them.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN.
The educational system of GB is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. The department of education and science is responsible for national educational policy, but it doesn’t employ teacher or prescribe curricular or text books. Each school has it’s own board of governers consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. Such as religious instruction. Schooling for children is compulsory from 5 to 16, though some provision is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to prepare for higher education. The state school system is usually divided into 2 stages (secondary and primary). The majority of primary schools are mixed. They are subdivided into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according to their abilities. Under the pressure of progressive parents and teachers the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country. There are some types of schools in GB Grammar schools provided an academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They give pupils a high level of academic education which can lead to the university. Technical Schools offer a general education with a technical bias and serve those pupils who are more mechanically minded. The curricular includes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser attainment. The curricular includes more practical subjects. The comprehensive schools brings about
general improvement in the system of secondary education.
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post school education is organized flexible, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vocational education and to continue studying through out life.
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn’t run any schools, if doesn’t employ teachers, or prescribe curricular or textbooks. All schools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. That is religious instruction. Children receive pre-school education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant’s classes in primary schools. Most pupils receive free education finenst from public funds and the small proportions attend schools wholly independent. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.
Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 – 7), and junior schools (ages 7 – 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher except for PT and music. The work is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extend over four years. Children have set pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehensive schools began to appear after World War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools. By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3. The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certificate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).
andidates set for 0 level papers at 15 – 16 years away. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of average abilities of their age.
EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupils ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to acquire some scientific knowledge.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities.
There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialised, politechnical, musical art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.
MY FAVORITE PAINTER
One of my favourite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch master, one of the supreme geneses in the history of art. To this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound witness of the progress of the soul in it’s earthly pilgrimage towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting. His rapid success promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631. In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best of them are „Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp“ and „The night watch“. In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several financial troubles. At that period he painted „The Polish Rider“, which is an allegory of the man’s earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant painted his famous „Return of the Prological son“, which stands
the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the self to the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted „Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir“, „The Saint Family“. Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest artist of the world.
MY FUTURE PROFESSION
What I would like to become? This question puzzles me greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly all the professions are very important in life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or works, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest are offered in the sphere of the services transport, communications and many others. I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I like this profession because it very interest.
Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Lot’s radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers uses in different ways, but basically they are read.
There is a lot of advertisement on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.
But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programs.
There are more then six TV channels and lot’s of radio stations and newspapers now in the Russian Federation.
Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefers only to sleep in their leisure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great amount of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be reading, a various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and others. If we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many peoples thing that pupils and students have too much leisure ,but in my opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or seven lessons a day and go to school live or six day a week. Even during the holiday we learn our lessons after school. And we just no time to go some-there. Oldest of us are working after school or institutes. I’m not spend my time at school and after I have a free time. The large part of my free time devote to reading. I like to read books about another countries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about history of our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. I and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball, football or other active games. But my favourite hobby is travelling. Usually I travel in summer and after it is a trip to the south, to the warm sea. thing all peoples must have other occupation besides their basic work, because it extend the boundaries of the familiar world and teach us something new about people and thing.