Adjectives with prepositions
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Adjectives with prepositions

Content

Content 1

Kingdom of Great Britain 3

Scotland 3

Head of state 5

Geography 5

Language 5

History 6

Culture 7

Scottish education 7

Religion 7

Politics 8

The Scottish economy 8

Edinburgh 9

The Centre 9

Old Town 9

New Town 10

Economy 10

Kingdom of England 11

A Quick History of the Kingdom 11

England and Wales 12

Cardiff 13

Industry 13

History 13

Culture, Media, Sport and Tourism 14

Northern Ireland 14

Geography and climate 15

The use of language for Northern Irish geography 16

History 16

Demographics and politics 17

Political parties 19

Culture 19

Belfast 19

Geography 20

Points of interest 20

History 20

England 21

Symbols and insignia 22

History 22

Politics 23

Geography 24

Demographics 25

Languages 25

London 26

Geography and climate 26

History 27

Modern London 27

London Districts 28

Central London 28

East London 28

West London 29

South London 30

North London 30

Demographics 30

Government 31

Transport and Infrastructure 31

Education 32

Media 33

Religion 34

Culture 34

Music 34

Festivals 35

Theatre 35

Art 35

Museums 35

Night-life 35

Business 36

London tourist attractions 36

Literature featuring London 36

Films featuring London 36

Vocabulary 37

Kingdom of Great Britain

Union Flag (1606-1800)

The Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’, was created by the merging of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of Great Britain. A single parliament and government, based in Westminster in London, controlled the new kingdom. The two former kingdoms had shared the same monarch since King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603.From 1707 onward, a joint „British“ throne replaced the English and Scottish thrones and a joint Parliament of Great Britain replaced the Scottish and English parliaments. Scotland and England were given seats in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords of the new parliament. Although Scotland’s representation in both houses was smaller than its population indicated it should have been, representation in parliament was at that time based not on population but on taxation, and Scotland was given a greater number of MPs than its share of taxation warranted. Under the treaty, Scotland elected forty-five members to the Commons and sent sixteen representative peers to the Lords. The Kingdom of Great Britain was superseded by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801 when the Kingdom of Ireland was absorbed with the enactment of the Act of Union 1801.

Scotland

Scotland (English/Lowland Scots)

Alba (Scottish Gaelic)



(Flag)

(Coat of Arms)

Scotland’s location within the UK

Official language

English,

Scots Gaelic,

Lowland Scots

Capital

Edinburgh

Largest city Glasgow

First Minister

Jack McConnell

Area

– Total

– % water Ranked 2nd UK

78,782 km²

1.9%

Population

– Total (2001)

– Density

Ranked 2nd UK

5,062,011

64/km²

(1) To date, Scotland does not officially recognise one single national anthem. Over the years, the role of the nation’s anthem has been filled by various patriotic songs, including Flower of Scotland, Scotland the Brave and Scots Wha Hae. In the 1990s, one of the country’s leading tabloid newspapers conducted a poll to determine which song should be classed as Scotland’s anthem. Flower of Scotland won and is now used as the de facto national anthem at international sporting events, although there are those who still consider the other songs as having equal validity.

Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. Scotland has a land boundary with England on the island of Great Britain and is otherwise bounded by seas and oceans.

Scotland’s territorial extent is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. Exceptions include the Isle of Man, which is now a crown dependency outside the United Kingdom, Orkney and Shetland, which are Scottish rather than Danish, and Berwick-upon-Tweed, which was defined as subject to the laws of England by the 1746 Wales and Berwick Act. Scotland entered into a personal union with England in 1603, when the Scottish King James VI also became James I of England. This union was formalised on 1 May 1707 by the Act of Union 1707. The Scottish Parliament was abolished on March 26, 1707. The union merged both kingdoms, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain, with a new single Parliament sitting in Westminster, London, but some aspects of Scotland’s institutions, notably the country’s legal system, remained separate. The new state eventually became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In 1999, the people of Scotland voted to create a new parliament, established by the UK Government under the Scotland Act 1998. The new devolved Scottish Parliament has been given powers to govern the country on certain purely domestic matters and has limited tax varying capability. The patron saint of Scotland is Saint Andrew, and Saint Andrew’s Day is celebrated in the country on 30 November.

Head of state

HM Queen Elizabeth II, head of state of the United Kingdom, is descended from King James VI of Scotland,
the first Scottish monarch to also be King of England (James I of England from 1603). While some controversy has simmered amongst the Scottish public over her official title since her coronation (many believe that, being the first Queen Elizabeth of Scotland, she should use the style „Elizabeth I“), the courts of Scotland have confirmed „Elizabeth II“ as her official title. She has said that in the future monarchs will follow the international ordinal tradition that, where a monarch reigns in a number of non-independent territories (or independent territories that agree to share a monarch) that each have a differing number of previous monarchs of the same name, the highest ordinal used in any of the territories is the one used across all. (Past Scottish-English monarchs such as James VI & I and James VII & II reigned over legally separate kingdoms and hence used a dual ordinal.) Properly, the Scottish monarch was known as „King/Queen of Scots“, and referred to as „your Grace“, rather than „your Majesty“.

Geography

Scotland comprises the northern part of the island of Great Britain; it is bordered on the south by England. The country consists of a mainland area plus several island groups, including Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides, divided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. Three main geographical and geological areas make up the mainland: from north to south, the generally mountainous Highlands, the low-lying Central Belt, and the hilly Southern Uplands. The majority of the Scottish population resides in the Central Belt, which contains three of the country’s six largest cities, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Stirling, and many large towns. Most of the remaining population lives in the North-East Lowlands where two of the remaining three cities, Aberdeen and Dundee, are situated. The final city, Inverness, is situated where the River Ness meets the Moray Firth, on the fault between the North-West Highlands and the Cairngorms.

Language

Scotland has three distinct languages: English, Scottish Gaelic and Lowland Scots. Almost all Scots speak Scottish Standard English. It is estimated that up to 30% of the population are also fluent in Lowland Scots, which differs markedly from standard English. Slightly greater than 1% of the population use Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic language similar to Irish, as their language of everyday use, primarily in the northern and western regions of the country. Almost all Gaelic speakers also speak fluent English. By the time of James VI’s accession to the English throne, the old Scottish Court and Parliament spoke Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans. It is routinely argued that Lowland Scots developed from the Northumbrian form of Anglo-Saxon, spoken in Bernicia which, in the 6th century, conquered the Brythonic kingdom of Gododdin (modern-day Lothian) and renamed its capital, Dunedin to Edinburgh. But this ignores the strong resemblance of Lallans, particularly the Doric spoken in the northeast of the country, to Norse and Swedish, with many words and phrases almost identical. Given the penetration of Viking and Norse culture into Scotland, this is as strong a candidate as the southern spread of ‘Inglis’, and the two derivations need hardly be mutually exclusive. Lallans also contains a great number of borrowed and loaner words from Gaelic, the separation between the two cultural ‘zones’ often being over-exaggerated, at least in Scotland’s earlier history. Furthermore, most of the area that currently speaks Lowland Scots is well outside the Lothians, and its spread was no doubt assisted by Anglo-Norman feudalism, Flemish merchants and the growth of towns. To date, the Scottish Parliament recognises only English and Scottish Gaelic as the country’s official languages.

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