Australijos faunos ir floros specifika
5 (100%) 1 vote

Australijos faunos ir floros specifika

VILNIAUS JĖZUITŲ GIMNAZIJA

Lukas Žilinskas, 7c klasės moksleivis

AUSTRALIJOS FAUNOS IR FLOROS SPECIFIKA

Vilnius

2006 – 2007

Turinys

1.ĮVADAS………………………………………………………………3

1.1. Darbo tikslai ir uždaviniai…………………………………….3

2.AUSTRALIA………………………………………………….……4

3.THE GREAT BARRIER REEF……………………………………………… ….5

4.AUSTRALIAN FAUNA…………………………………………………………….6

4.1. Red kangaroo………………………………………………………………..7

4.2. Lumholtz Tree kangaroo……………………………………….……….. 8

4.3. Koala…………………………………………………………………….…………. .9

4.4. Platypus…………………………………………………………………………….10

4.5. Wombat……………………………………………………………..……12

4.6. Tasmanian Devil……………………………………………………………13

4.7. Box Jellyfish……………………………………………………………….….14

4.8. Emu………………………………………………………………………………….15

4.9. Piping Shrike……………………………………………………………….……16

4.10. Cassowary……………………………………………………………….…..17

4.11. The Black Swan……………………………………………………………..18

4.12. Kookaburra……………………………………………………………………..18

4.13. Lyrebird………………………………………………………………………….19

4.14. White cockatoo………………………………………………………………20

4.15. Echidna…………………………………………………………………………….21

4.16. Dingo…………………………………………………………………………….…22

4.17. Bandicoot……………………………………………………………………..…23

4.18. Bilby…………………………………………………………………………..…….24

4.19. King parrot…………………………………………………………………… 25

4.20. Wedge – tailed Eagle………………………………………………….….26

3.21. Long – Footed Potoroo………………………………………………….27

5.AUSTRALIAN FLAURA………………………………………………………..….28

5.1. Acacias…………………………………………………………………………….28

5.2. Bottle Brush…………………………………………………………………….29

4.3. Wax Flower……………………………………………………………………..30

5.4. Sturts Desert Pea……………………………………………………………..30

5.5. Warath……………………………………………………………………..……31

6.IŠVADOS…………………………………………………………………………..32

6.1. Santrauka……………………………………………………………………….32

6.2. Darbo rezultatai…………………………………………………… .33

7.LITERATŪRA………………………………………………………33

1. ĮVADAS

Australija – paradoksų žemė. Norėta kuo daugiau sužinoti apie unikalų žemyną – valstybę, kurios fauna ir flora yra išskirtinė dėl geografinės padėties – vandens kliūtis trukdė augalams ir gyvūnams iš kitų žemynų patekti į Australiją ir todėl čia susiformavo unikali, kitur pasaulyje nesutinkama augalija ir gyvūnija.

Dar vienas ypatumas – tai gamtinės sąlygos, kurios lemia Australijos gamtos išsiskirstymą :

1.Drėgnieji atogrąžų miškai su eukaliptais, palmėmis ir bambukais.

2.Savanos su aukšta žole ir akacijomis.

3.Dykumos, kurios sudaro didžiąją Australijos dalį.

1.1. Darbo tikslai ir uždaviniai

Darbo tikslas – surinkti medžiagą apie Australijos faunos ir floros specifiką.

Darbo uždaviniai:

1.Sužinoti Australijos žemyno atsiradimo istoriją, apie jos gamtines zonas, geografiją.

2.Surinkti kuo daugiau informacijos apie Australijos faunos specifiką.

3.Sužinoti apie Australijos florą, jos išskirtinumą.

2. Australia

Australia is an island that is also a continent. It consists of two land masses: the mainland and Tasmania. In area it is the 6th largest country and the smallest continent. Its area is 7,682,300 square km. It is about the size of the mainland states of the United States, excluding Alaska, and approximately 24 times the size of the British Isles.

Australia is one of the oldest continents, the effects of over 250 million years of erosion have turned it into a flat, low lying and stable land mass. It has a wide variety of landforms. Much of the flat inland is desert. At one time this was a fertile area with many lakes and marshes. Some of these old lakes survive today as salt lakes like Lake Eyre in South Australia, with the lowest elevation of 16 metres below sea level (it occasionally fills with water). The highest
peak is Mt Kosciusko, in New South Wales, which is 2228 metres above sea level.

Whilst Australia is often thought of as a dry thinly populated land, this is only true of the inland (or outback) areas. The eastern coast is more heavily populated. The huge interior is hot and dry with vast expanses of sandy desert or stone plains giving way to shrub savannah or mallee scrub. The main mountains are along the eastern coast, known as the Great Dividing Range, which has an average altitude of less than 910 metres above sea level. In coastal regions the environments range from tropical rain forest in the north, to pastoral lands and forest in the east and the south-east, to alpine country in the Snowy Mountains and central Tasmania. The highest peak is Mt Kosciusko in the Australian Alps, and is 2,228 metres.

Australia’s deserts are as vast as the Sahara, the snowfields huge and picturesque. Our surfing beaches are among the best in the world.

Australia is a land of unique flora and fauna.

3. GREAT BARRIER REEF

A living wonder. It was World Heritage listed in 1981. The largest complex of coral reefs and islands in the world, consisting of more than 2900 individual reefs and about 900 islands. It runs a distance of 2500km down the coast of Queensland. Its total area is about 344,000 sq. km. It is the biggest marine park in the world. Its distance from the shore ranges from about 15km to 200km. It has an area larger than the United Kingdom and is longer than the west coast of the USA. It is visible from space.

The Reef contains more than 340 identified varieties of coral, colourful anemones, sea urchins and sea slugs. There are dolphins, turtles, sea snakes, fish, shellfish of all kinds, ranging from great clams to tiny cowries. It is the breeding ground for a number of rare and endangered animals. It is home to the threatened dugong. Humpback whales come on annual pilgrimages from Antarctica during winter. Multitudes of seabirds nest on the islands during spring and summer.

There are not many sharks around the Great Barrier Reef because they prefer the open sea. The ones commonly encountered are the white tip reef, very timid, and black tip reef sharks. They are easily identified by their markings and are often found on the ocean floor. The sharks found on the reef are fish eaters and pose no threat to visitors, unless harassed, when they may attack out of fear.

Coral reefs are colonies of billions of tiny jelly-like individual creatures that have joined together to form colonies which have been built up slowly over thousands of years. Coral is the hard outer skeleton which protects the soft bodies of the tiny animals. There are many hundreds of species and each has a different growth pattern, from mounds, sheets, fans, branches and antlers. Some are fast growing, some slower. Coral feeds mostly on plankton. It is the living coral that gives the reef its colourful appearance. The skeletal coral is white. Shallow warm water is the ideal environment, with lots of water movement, plenty of light, salty water and low in nutrients.

4. AUSTRALIAN FAUNA

Because Australia is an island, and has been for millions of years, its wildlife has been able to evolve independently.

The animals of Australia are particularly interesting because many of them are distinctly primitive. There are groups of animals whose relatives have long since disappeared from other parts of the world. Many of the animals found in this country are unique.

Australia is home to a variety of native mammals both on land and in the surrounding oceans. They consist of marsupials, monotremes and placental mammals. The largest number of the mammals, almost half, are the marsupials, which include the Kangaroo, Koala and Wombat. The word marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, which means pouch. The pouch gives protection to the very young animal and contains the teats from which it feeds. Nourished on its mother’s milk, it grows in the pouch to a well-developed stage before it leaves the pouch. The only other country where marsupials are still found is America, and only a few species remain.

The next group of mammals are the monotremes, the only egg-laying mammals in the world. They have one opening which serves for reproduction and for the elimination of waste products. This group is represented by the Platypus and the Echidna. The other native land mammals are the bats, rats, mice and the Dingo. Australia’s bird species include the Emu and Kookaburra.

4.1. RED KANGAROO

The red kangaroo is the giant of the Australian kangaroos. It is widespread over the mainland. It lives on grasses, and often lives in quite big mobs. It can leap up to five metres long in a jump and so is quite fast over short distances to escape danger.

When adult males are breeding they will often fight each other, face to face, boxing with their front paws and then giving gigantic double kicks with their back legs.

Because of the climate extremes in Australia, the kangaroos have adapted to the break or bust cycles. In droughts many kangaroos will die because there is no feed at all. But in a good season the female can have three young one with her: one as an embryo just starting off and not yet born, one in the pouch who draws a special milk supply from the mother , and another just out who gets milk from a different nipple. So suddenly there can be a population explosion.

Farmers vary in their attitudes from the ferocious
them” to “let’s learn to live them”. They annoy farmers by eating sparse grass and by jumping through fences damaging them.

4.2. LUMHOLTZ TREE KANGAROO

The Lumholtz Tree Kangaroo is found only in Queensland. They are small animals, with rounded ears and a masked dark fur face, with a long tail used for balance. The Tree Kangaroo is a nocturnal animal, and they stay in trees for the majority of their life. They do venture to the ground to find another tree to inhabit. The Tree Kangaroo can leap up to 15 metres to another tree.

The Tree Kangaroo feeds on leaves, fruits and other such food sources. They have the ability to jump from tree to tree, and stick to trees very well with the help of their cushioned feet.

4.3. KOALA

The Koala is one of Australia’s best known animals. It is an icon represented when promoting Australia to the tourist industry, and in general people adore these cuddly creatures. There are two species, the Southern Koalas and the Northern Koalas.

Koalas are often referred to as a Koala bear. However they are not a bear. The name Koala comes from an Aboriginal word. It means „no drink“, as Koalas get enough fluids through the eucalyptus leaves they feed on. Koalas are found all over east Australia, mainly in the south east.

The male Koalas are larger than the females. Southern koalas are larger than Northern koalas. They have a grey soft furred coat, with a white chest. A flat nose and big ears, and clawed feet for climbing. They are very placid animals, and do not move around much, they are only active for about 2 hours of the day.

The old Australian joke of „Koalas: Eats Roots & Leaves“ is not quite correct. Koalas feed on eucalyptus leaves, which they have a variety of twelve different species to choose from. This is basically the only thing they do eat, although there are a few exceptions.

4.4. PLATYPUS

The platypus is found in eastern Australia. They live aside freshwater rivers or lakes, and create burrows for shelter and protection. They are active mainly at nighttime hours, and use their webbed feet for swimming. When swimming the platypus has its eyes shut. They swim underwater for 2 minutes, before returning to the surface for oxygen. They can however stay underwater for up to 10 minutes, and due to their natural buoyancy, they need to be underneath another object to do this.

Šiuo metu Jūs matote 30% šio straipsnio.
Matomi 1715 žodžiai iš 5691 žodžių.
Peržiūrėkite iki 100 straipsnių per 24 val. Pasirinkite apmokėjimo būdą:
El. bankininkyste - 1,45 Eur.
Įveskite savo el. paštą (juo išsiųsime atrakinimo kodą) ir spauskite Tęsti.
SMS žinute - 2,90 Eur.
Siųskite sms numeriu 1337 su tekstu INFO MEDIA ir įveskite gautą atrakinimo kodą.
Turite atrakinimo kodą?
Po mokėjimo iškart gausite atrakinimo kodą, kurį įveskite į laukelį žemiau:
Kodas suteikia galimybę atrakinti iki 100 straispnių svetainėje ir galioja 24 val.