1. INTERNATIONAL CRIMES 4
1.1. Danger of international crimes 4
1.2. Terrorism definition 5
1.3. The main reason for terror acts 6
1.4. Terrorist groups 7
2. TERROR PREVENTION 9
2.1. NATO – transatlantic organization 9
2.2. EU security policy 9
3. TERRORISM MENACE 11
3.1. Terror acts in USA 11
3.2. Countries with large terrorism presence 11
3.3. Future of terrorism 12
This topic concerns wide aspect of crimes, because definition of terrorism isn’t unanimous concept.
My task was:
• using analysis method formalize the optimal concept of this type of crime,
• participate existing terrorist group and define some of them,
• to separate the main reason for such an action and motivation with or without religious aspect,
• to display what kind of institutions or organizations take care of our security international or transnational aspect.
• Contemplate terrorism future, is it possible that this type of crime may increase or contrariwise,
• To talk about countries with a large terrorism presence,
• Finally, to summarize all this information and to present it.
1. INTERNATIONAL CRIMES
1.1. Danger of international crimes
International crime may refer to:
• Crime against international law. It’s a number of crimes against international law that are created by treaty and convention.
• Crime against humanity. It is an act of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, and is the highest level of criminal offense. Such criminal acts as murder, extermination, torture, rape, political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
• Crime against peace. In international law defines as the act of military invasion as a war crime, specifically referring to starting or waging war against the integrity, independence, or sovereignty of a territory or state, and other military violation of relevant international treaties, agreements or legally binding assurances.
• War crime. It is a punishable offense under international law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. Every violation of the law of war in an inter-state conflict is a war crime, while violations in internal conflicts are typically limited to the local jurisdiction.
• International criminal law. It is an autonomous branch of law which deals with international crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility. It represents a significant departure from ‘classical’ international law which was mainly considered law created by states for the benefit of states, but the individual is tended to ignore as a subject of the law. The most important institution is the International Criminal Court and two ad hoc tribunals:
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
Another category of crimes is transnational crimes. “The word „transnational“ defines crimes that are not only international, that is, crimes that cross borders between countries, but crimes that by their nature have border crossings as an essential part of the criminal activity.” It also includes crimes that take place abroad. Transnational crimes are:
• Trafficking in human beings. It is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. This sort of crime involves a process of using illicit means such as threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion and etc.
• People smuggling. It means transportation of people across international borders to a non-official entry point of a destination country for a variety of reasons. Mostly, travel without documents or prior approval to enter the destination country. This crime is totally equivalent to slavery.
• Illegal arms trade. It is underground massive global industry and business which manufacturers and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. These arms trade are using for illegal actions considered of massive crimes.
• Sex slavery. It is a special case of unwilling slavery which includes such practices as:
single-owner sexual slavery;
ritual slavery (associated with traditional religious practices);
slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible
1.2. Terrorism definition
There are various descriptions of terrorism. It is defining as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. This type of crime includes an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict. It may be considered as an asymmetric form of conflict which confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost.
Terrorism is increasingly common among those pursuing extreme goals throughout the world, that’s why preemption is so important. Despite all these actions pointed against the terrorism is a nebulous concept, even within fight against this crime we use different definitions. “The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate
fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
There are some key elements that produce terror in its victims:
Finally, we may consider all definitions and make a conclusion that terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. It is violence or other harmful acts committed against civilians for political or other ideological goals.