History of lithuania
5 (100%) 1 vote

History of lithuania

The Baltic tribes established themselves on what is presently known as Lithuanian territory during the 7th-2nd centuries BC. Many centuries passed, however, before the name of Lithuania appeared in records for the first time, in AD 1009, in the Annals of Quedlinburg. During the period 1236-63, Duke Mindaugas (Mindowe) united the Lithuanian ethnic lands and established the state of Lithuania, which was able to offer resistance against the eastward expansion of the Teutonic Knights. In 1253, Mindaugas embraced Christianity for political reasons, and accepted the crown from the Pope of Rome. Thus, he became the first and only king in Lithuanian history.Grand Duke Gediminas (Gedimin), who ruled the country from 1316 to 1341, started the long-term expansion of Lithuania into the lands of the eastern Slavs. He founded the modern capital city of Vilnius and started the Gediminaiciai dynasty, whose representatives became members of many European monarchies.A Gediminaitis, Jogaila (Jagiello), in becoming the King of Poland in 1386, started the 400-year common history of Lithuania and Poland, which was marked by several agreements and unions. As a result of this union, Christianity finally came to Lithuania.Grand Duke Vytautas (Witold), who ruled from 1392 to 1430, brought the greatest military and political prosperity to the country. During his reign, the push eastward by the German Order was broken. In 1410 Vytautas, along with his cousin Jogaila Jagiello, won the Battle of Grьnwald (Tannenberg), against the might of the Order. He also annexed many Belorussian, Russian and Ukrainian territories to Lithuania and extended the state border all the way to the shores of the Black Sea.Internal discord began to weaken the state during the 16th century. More resilient ties with Poland became unavoidable, and in 1569, Lithuania signed the Union of Lublin with Poland, further strengthening ties between the two nations. The agreement created a Commonwealth Republic of two nations, which shared one king (also holding the title of Grand Duke of Lithuania) and a joint legislature, the Seimas. Nevertheless, Lithuania’s state sovereignty was preserved: the treasury, the currency, the laws and the army remained independent. Regrettably, in historical sources, this impressive Republic is most frequently alluded to by the single name of Poland. The institution of an elected king in this Republic was the first in Europe. In 1573 Henry Valois of Bourbon became the first such king.A cultural leap forward occurred in the 16th century, resulting from the supremacy of self rule by the boyars, land reform, consolidation of cities and the arrival on the scene of an enlightened society. During that century, in 1529, 1566 and 1588, three Statutes of Lithuania were written. These are documents of an unsual legal nature, containing elements of state law. (The last Statute still applied within the territory of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania as late as the 19th century, long after the disappearance of the state from the political map.)From 1654 to 1667, Lithuania became enmeshed in wars with Russia, whose might had been increasing. A misfortune occurred in 1655, as for the first time in history Vilnius was occupied by a foreign army, that of the Russian Czar. While searching for a solution to extricate itself from a difficult international situation and disagreements with Poland, Lithuania formed an agreement with Sweden, the short-lived Treaty of Kedainiai, also in 1655. In spite of this, the state continued to diminish in strength.During the second half of the 18th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania lost nearly all its sovereign rights. Following its successful wars with Sweden, Russia, together with Austria and Prussia engaged in the partition of the Republic of Lithuania-Poland, in three instances, in 1772, 1793 and 1795. Following the third partition, the major part of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania was handed over to Russia. The name of Lithuania had di A greater blow was dealt in the 19th century, though the beginning was deceptively calm. In 1803, the university was accorded the name of Imperial University and Vilnius itself continued to preserve the marks of its past majesty: it was the third largest city (after Moscow and St Petersburg) in the Russian Empire. However, a change of direction was imminent: it came in 1812, with Napoleon’s campaign against Russia. The French were enthusiastically received in Lithuania as liberators, and were supported and even honoured in high social circles. The hasty withdrawal of the French which soon followed, was the prelude to disaster. Following Napoleon’s campaign, Czar Nicholas I initiated a new policy: the authorities of the occupation began to russify the country with increased speed, and to transform it into a provincial hinterland. Along with the Poles, the Lithuanians revolted against the occupiers on two occasions, in 1831 and 1863, but the revolts brought painful defeats. The consequences were sad indeed: Vilnius University and other institutions of higher education were closed, the influence of the Catholic Church was curbed, all Catholic monasteries were closed and the Russian Orthodox Religion was declared the state religion. Lithuanians were not permitted to purchase land, erect crosses and new churches. The centuries-old ties between Lithuania and Central and Western Europe were torn up by the roots. The first deportations of Lithuanian boyars and peasants to
the depths of Siberia were begun.From 1864, the Lithuanian language itself and its Latin alphabet were banned and the so-called graZdanka, Lithuanian with the Russian alphabet, was introduced. The cultural life of the country went into a state of paralysis.Lithuania began to recover only towards the end of the 19th century, the period known as the „spring of nations.“ A struggle for national culture and reinstitution of writing spread over the greater part of the country. A unique movement, the „book-bearers“ (knygnesiai) came about through self-education and a concern for survival. Lithuanian books in the Latin alphabet were printed in Lithuania Minor, Prussia, under German jurisdiction, and illegally transported across the border into Lithuania Major. The book-bearer movement fostered „home-school“ movement and the emergence of self-taught teachers. In the course of several decades, the degree of literacy and national awareness was greatly increased throughout the entire country. In 1883, Dr. Jonas Basanavicius organised the publication of the first Lithuanian periodical, Ausra („The Dawn“), which was also disseminated illegally. The authority of educated people grew rapidly. An increasing number of students who had graduated from universities in Russia, Poland or the West, joined the national rebirth movement.In 1904, Lithuanian representatives managed to win by legal means the lifting of the ban on Lithuanian publications and educational institutions.At the start of the 20th century, the national movement became so strong that in 1905 the Grand Assembly of Vilnius (Didysis Vilniaus Seimas), which had formulated the demands of Lithuania’s autonomy, was able to assemble. Lithuanian representatives were also elected to the newly-formed Russian Parliament, the Duma, where they defended their rights with ever-increasing boldness.At the start of World War I, Lithuania was soon occupied by Germany. With the end of the war in sight, Lithuanian representatives from all parts of the country, seizing a favourable political moment, assembled in Vilnius in September 1917, and held a conference. The elected 20-member Council of Lithuania proclaimed the restitution of the independent state of Lithuania on the 16th of February, 1918, even though the German Army and authorities were still in control of the entire country.sappeared from the political map of Europe for 123 years. On the 23rd of March, 1918, the German Kaiser announced his recognition of the independence of Lithuania. However, until Germany capitulated in November that same year, Lithuania’s international status remained undefined. On the 12th of December, 1918, Sweden was the first state to accord Lithuania de facto recognition. Russia and the major countries of the world recognised Lithuania’s independence during 1920-22. Lithuania was admitted to the League of Nations in 1921. The wars of defence of independence against the Bolsheviks, Poles and the remnants of the German and the Czarist armies continued until 1923. In the course of these wars, Lithuania lost its capital, Vilnius, which was occupied by Poland in 1920. Kaunas became the provisional capital and continued in that capacity for 20 years. Those years were not only a difficult time, but a period of hope as well. The Seimas, which had implemented the greatest reforms, functioned during 1920-22: it introduced the national currency (litas), passed laws that were favourable to the national economy and financial system, and organised radical land reform. The lands of the major estates were reduced somewhat and peasant farms began to recover. The country prospered rapidly along with the rest of Europe. In 1923, Lithuania recovered its historic Baltic seaport, Klaipeda, thus gaining a gateway to the world. However, the first eight years of independence failed to consolidate the democratic system of administration by the Seimas and the division of government. In December 1926 the army leadership, Nationalist Party and Christian Democratic staged a revolt, resulting in a loss of democracy. Government by the Seimas and its elected president was replaced by unlimited presidential rule. The political dictatorship of the Nationalist Party and the authoritarian rule of President Antanas Smetona lasted until the end of independent statehood. The threads of independence had already begun to break by March 1939, when fascist Germany annexed Klaipeda and the surrounding region. The twenty-two years of inter-war Lithuanian independence constitute the first golden age in Lithuanian culture. During that period, national life regained the characteristics of national civilisation. The state of Lithuania and Lithuanian culture broke through into the international arena and took part in major international events, the most impressive among them being the International Exposition in Paris in 1937. In addition to achievements in art and science, basketball has provided some cause for national pride: in 1937 and 1939, the Lithuanian Men’s Team became the European Champions. In 1933, Stasys Darius and Steponas Girenas achieved world fame by setting out on a direct flight from New York to Kaunas. They perished in East Prussia, near the Lithuanian border.

Šiuo metu Jūs matote 59% šio straipsnio.
Matomi 1633 žodžiai iš 2750 žodžių.
Peržiūrėkite iki 100 straipsnių per 24 val. Pasirinkite apmokėjimo būdą:
El. bankininkyste - 1,45 Eur.
Įveskite savo el. paštą (juo išsiųsime atrakinimo kodą) ir spauskite Tęsti.
SMS žinute - 2,90 Eur.
Siųskite sms numeriu 1337 su tekstu INFO MEDIA ir įveskite gautą atrakinimo kodą.
Turite atrakinimo kodą?
Po mokėjimo iškart gausite atrakinimo kodą, kurį įveskite į laukelį žemiau:
Kodas suteikia galimybę atrakinti iki 100 straispnių svetainėje ir galioja 24 val.