Jogurto gamyba
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Jogurto gamyba

Guidance Material

for the development

of a

Food Safety Programme

(Food Act 1981)

for

Yoghurt Manufacture

ii

Contents

Contents ii

1.1 Purpose of this Document 1

1.2 Using this Document 1

2.4 Generic Process Description 2

2.5 Hazard Analysis and CCP Determination � Yoghurt 5

1

1.1 Purpose of this Document

The purpose of this document is to supplement information provided in the Interim

Code of Practice for Specialist Cheese and provide advice and guidance for the

manufacture and storage of yoghurt, in order to provide products that are safe to

consume.

The owner and sponsor of the Interim Code of Practice is the:

New Zealand Specialist Cheese Makers Association

P O Box 12092

Auckland

1.2 Using this Document

This document may be used in conjunction with the Interim Code of Practice for

Specialist Cheeses, to form the basis from which businesses can develop a Food

Safety Programme (FSP) for the production of yoghurt in New Zealand or for sale

in New Zealand and Australia.

To develop a FSP, obtain the Interim Code of Practice for Specialist Cheeses and

become familiar with its� contents. Using the Code, start at section 2.0,

�Components of a Food Safety Programme/Product Safety Programme� and work

through each section. Most sections will apply equally to cheese and yoghurt

manufacturer. Additional guidance for yoghurt manufacture is included in this

document, numbered according to the equivalent section in the Code.

The Code and this document will be used as the document against which a FSP for

yoghurt manufacture is audited.

The requirements comply with standards established in legislation, but are otherwise

ways by which industry has agreed as suitable for achieving (good/best practice)

effective control of food safety hazards.

2

A purpose of the Code is to make the implementation of a FSP easier. It does this

by:

� providing a format and information for hazard analysis and critical control

point identification that can be edited and used directly;

� providing information about supporting systems that state the outcomes

which need to be met, and where possible, providing examples of

procedures that can be edited and used directly;

� providing information that needs to be included and used directly; and

� providing examples of forms for record keeping that can be edited and used

directly.

2.4 Generic Process Description

The following flow chart is a broad description of the yoghurt making process;

covering all process steps.

At the FSP level, a detailed process description, specific to your business is needed.

This may be expressed as a flow chart or a written description.

3

Yoghurt Production Process Flow Chart

Day One

t

Filtration

Milk in Vat

Pasteurisation

Yoghurt Heat

Treatment

Heat Treatment

Coagulum

Break Up

Day Two

Option 1

Starter

Greek thickened

yoghurt

Straining into bags

Chilling

Chilling

Packing

Chill Storage

Liquid/stirred

yoghurt

Mixing

Thinning

Packing

Chill Storage

Sugar

Ingredients

(Optional)

Plastic bottles

[Sterilised]

pottles/lids

[Sterilised]

cotton Bags

Option 2

4

Notes:

1. Batch pasteuriser tank may be used for yoghurt heat treatment step

2. Yoghurt heat treatment is at 85�C for 30 minutes, or 95�C for 5

minutes or equivalent, then cooled to 38-40�C.

3. Starter added at 39-40�C, stirred in for 5 minutes

4. Coagulum break up should be 8 hours after starter edition

5. Ingredients optional except for sugar for liquid/stirred yoghurt

6. Chilling should be to ?4�C

7. Whey is output of straining yoghurt into bags

8. Greek yoghurt packed 24 hours after straining into bags

9. Preservatives added?

10. Final product at ?4�C shelf life @ 15-20 days

5

2.5 Hazard Analysis and CCP Determination � Yoghurt

Note:

1. Some of these processes may not be applicable to the individual yoghurt maker, and other steps may need to be

included.

2. If a process step has been identified but other columns are blank the process step is a �prompt�.

Raw material & other inputs

Q1. Is the hazard at unacceptable

levels?

Process step

Component Hazards

(B � biological

C � chemical

P � physical)

Process step hazards and/or

potential impact of process step

on existing hazards

Yes/No Justification

Q2. Control measure available?

B � Non-spore pathogens from

cow, e.g. Salmonella, Listeria,

E. coli, Mycobacterium bovis

(TB)

B � Similar pathogens from milk

handler, equipment, shed, pests

Yes

No

Some pathogens expected in

raw milk

Personal, equipment and shed

hygiene

Water quality programme

Pest management programme

See pasteurisation step for available

control measures

See supporting systems

Farm Dairy PSP

Microbiological tests (frequency?)

B � Spore forming pathogens

from cow, e.g. Clostridium

perfringens, Clostridium

botulinum

Yes Some spores expected in raw

milk

See steps for cheese processing for

control, e.g. acidification, aerobic

storage/temperature control

1. Farm dairy

collection (this

may be

included in the

farm PSP)

Raw milk

B � Mycotoxins from cow No Diet controlled Animal health programme

Farm Dairy PSP

6

Raw material & other inputs

Q1. Is the hazard at unacceptable

levels?

Process step

Component Hazards

(B � biological

C � chemical

P � physical)

Process step hazards and/or

potential impact of process step

on existing hazards

Yes/No Justification

Q2. Control measure available?

C � Chemical residues from

cow, e.g. antibiotics,
pesticides,

heavy metals

Yes

No

Untested milk

Tested milk � minimal residue

violations by national

monitoring programme

On-farm tests

Animal health programme

See testing programme for chemical

residues

C � Chemical residues from

cleaning: milk handler or

equipment, environment; Pests

No Cleaning programme

Chemical control

Personal hygiene

Pest management programme

See supporting systems

Farm Dairy PSP

P � jewellery, nail polish, bristles,

metal, rubber, plastic: milk

handler, equipment, environment

No Personal hygiene

Maintenance programme

On line filter plus maintenance

Supporting systems

2. Chilled

storage of milk

Mixed storage

Raw milk B � Increase in pathogens in raw

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