London’s old buildings
London’s rich architectural heritage is cared for by several organisations. Many properties are open to the public.
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is responsible for conserving and enhancing England’s historic built environment. It designates Ancient Monuments and decides which buildings should be given listed status. The DCMS is also directly responsible for maintaining Apsley House, Somerset House and the former Royal Naval College in Greenwich. The department has links with the National Trust, English Heritage and Historic Royal Palaces.
The National Trust’s London properties include
o remains of a Roman Bath in the Strand
o Carlyle’s House in Chelsea
o Ernv Goldfinger’s 1930s modernist home in Hampstead
English Heritage oversees several sites of interest in the capital, including Kenwood House, London Wall, Eltham Palace and the Wellington Arch.
Historic Royal Palaces is contracted by the DCMS to manage the care and conservation of treasures such as the Tower of London, Kensington Palace, Hampton Court Palace, Kew Palace and the Banqueting House, Whitehall.
Using proceeds from the National Lottery, the Heritage Lottery Fund has spent more than three-quarters of a billion pounds on renovating and preserving historic buildings in England, Scotland and Wales. London buildings benefiting from funding include:
o Somerset House
o the Royal Albert Hall
o the Coliseum theatre (home to the English National Opera)
o buildings at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich.
London is home to several .world heritage sites. Six of the capital’s most important cultural landmarks received this international recognition:
o Kew Gardens
o the Tower of London
o the Palace of Westminster
o Westminster Abbey and St Margaret’s Church
o Maritime Greenwich
Ashby de la Zouch Castle
Ashby Castle forms the backdrop to the famous jousting scenes in Sir Walter Scott’s classic novel of 1819, Ivanhoe. Now a ruin, the castle began as a manor house in the 12th century and only achieved castle status in the 15th century, by which time the hall and buttery had been enlarged, with a solar to the east and a large, integral kitchen added to the west. In 1474, Lord Hastings, the Lord Chamberlain to Edward IV, constructed the chapel and the keep, Hastings Tower – a castle within a castle.Ashby has hosted royal visitors – notably Mary, Queen of Scots, twice imprisoned here, and James I, who attended masques and lavish entertainments. Ashby suffered a dramatic Civil War siege in the 1640s, after which the tower was blown in two. Now, visitors can climb the 24-metre (78 ft) tower, which offers superb views of the town and surrounding countryside. An underground passageway, which was created during the war, links the kitchen to the tower and can still be explored today.
The Old Royal Naval College
The old Royal Naval College is the great baroque masterpiece of English architecture, set in landscaped grounds on the River Thames in the centre of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site. The UNESCO designation recognises the site as being of „outstanding universal value“, as Greenwich comprises the finest and most dramatically sited architectural and landscape ensemble in the British Isles.
Greenwich Hospital was established in 1694 by Royal Charter for the relief and support of seamen and their dependants and for the improvement of navigation. Sir Christopher Wren planned the site, described as „one of the most sublime sights English architecture affords“, and during the first half of the eighteenth century various illustrious architects, such as Hawksmoor and Vanbrugh, completed Wren’s grand design. The elaborate ceiling and wall paintings in the Great Hall (known as the „Painted Hall“) were executed by Sir James Thornhill between 1707 and 1726. The Chapel was restored by James „Athenian“ Stuart after a fire in 1779.
In 1869 the Hospital was closed, and in 1873 the complex of buildings became the Royal Naval College, where officers from all over the world came to train in the naval sciences. The Navy moved out in 1998 to merge with the RAF and Army at a new Joint Services Staff College in Shrivenham.
The Greenwich Foundation was established in 1997 as a registered charity to look after these magnificent buildings and their grounds for the benefit of the nation. A 150 year lease for the buildings was signed in July 1998. In the Autumn of 1999 the University of Greenwich began teaching here and, in October 2001, it was joined in by Trinity College of Music.
History of the Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster was the principal residence of the kings of England from the middle of the 11th century until 1512. In medieval times kings summoned their courts wherever they happened to be. But by the end of the 14th century the court in all its aspects – administrative, judicial and parliamentary – had its headquarters at Westminster.
Although the Lords were accommodated in the Palace, the Commons originally had no permanent meeting place of their own, meeting either in the chapter house or the refectory of Westminster Abbey. After the Chantries Act 1547 abolished all private chapels, the Royal Chapel of St Stephen within the Palace of Westminster was handed over to the Commons.
The Commons assembled in St Stephen’s until 1834 when the Palace was burned down. This fire destroyed almost all of the Palace except
Westminster Hall, the crypt of St Stephen’s Chapel, the adjacent cloisters and the Jewel Tower.
The present Houses of Parliament were built over the next 30 years. They were the work of the architect Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860) and his assistant Augustus Welby Pugin (1812-52). The design incorporated Westminster Hall and the remains of St Stephen’s Chapel.
The House of Commons Chamber was destroyed in a German air attack in 1941. It was rebuilt after the Second World War, taking care to preserve the essential features of Barry’s building – the architect was Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The new Chamber was completed in 1950.
Layout of the Palace of Westminster
After coming through the public entrance – St Stephen’s Entrance – the approach to the Central Lobby of the Palace is through St Stephen’s Hall from St Stephen’s Porch at the southern end of Westminster Hall. Central Lobby, a large octagonal hall, is the centrepiece of the Palace. When waiting to see their MP, members of the public wait here. The Central Lobby is a great masterpiece of Victorian art.
From the Central Lobby, corridors lead northward to the House of Commons Lobby and Chamber and southward to the House of Lords. Beyond the House of Lords are the ceremonial rooms used at the State Opening of Parliament – the Queen’s Robing Room and the Royal Gallery – reached by a separate entrance under the Victoria Tower. The Royal Gallery is 33 m long, 13 m high and 13 m wide (110 ft x 44 ft x 44 ft). The Queen processes through it on her way to the Chamber of the House of Lords on the occasion of the State Opening of Parliament. It is also often used when members of the two Houses meet together to hear addresses by visiting heads of State or Government.
To the north of the House of Commons are the residences of the Speaker and the Serjeant-at-Arms, and various offices for ministers and officials. Beyond them is one of the most famous features of the Palace – the huge bell Big Ben housed in the Clock Tower. Big Ben came into operation in 1859 and weighs 13.7 tonnes.
The Site and its Royal Associations
The site of the Houses of Parliament was known in early mediaeval times as Thorney, the island
of briars. It was a low, marshy area; the River Thames being much wider and shallower than at
present. Two tributary rivers entered it from the north bank: a little further upstream was the
Horse ferry which was a shallow ford at low tide.
There were positive considerations for choosing this fen as a site for a Royal Palace. It was
sufficiently far from London (with whose citizens Kings sometimes found themselves in
disagreement), adjacent to the river for ease of transport of people and goods and next to the
great church refounded by Edward the Confessor (c1065). Indeed, it is said that Thorney had
been a royal residence and a religious site in the reign of King Canute (1016-1035). During the
construction of the first Abbey building, Edward also set up residence in Thorney, to an area
generally to the east of the Church. Although nothing remains of this Saxon palace, it was
Edward’s residence here that directly gave rise to the present location of Parliament and also to
the division of the capital into the trade and business centre, the City, and the administrative
area, based upon Thorney, which became known as Westminster, the church in the West.
Edward was succeeded by William the Conqueror (1066-1087) who, having established his first
stronghold at the Tower, later moved to the Westminster Palace. Although William probably
made changes to the site, it is from the reign of his son, William Rufus (1087-1100), which the
first surviving buildings on the site date, including Westminster Hall, the Great Hall, built at the
northern end of the Palace and still standing today after 900 years of continuous use. The
existence of this Hall, which at that time was the largest in Europe, helped to make Westminster
the ceremonial centre of the kingdom.
The Palace was one of the monarch’s principal homes throughout the later Middle Ages and for
this reason the institutions of Government came to be clustered in the Westminster area. Royal
Councils were sometimes held in Westminster Hall but Parliament never met there on a regular
basis. To the east and south of the Hall lay the domestic apartments of the mediaeval Palace.
The Kings worshipped in St. Stephen’s Chapel and their courtiers in the crypt chapel below.
When in residence at Westminster, the King was attended by his court. The Royal Council of
bishops, nobles and ministers also assembled here. The special, later form of this Council,
which came to be known as Parliament, was the forerunner of the present House of Lords.
From the mid-13th century it became increasingly usual to summon knights from the shires and
burgesses from the towns. In the 14th century they began to meet together, apart from the
Lords, and from this assembly evolved the modern House of Commons. The future architectural
development of the Palace was therefore inextricably bound up with its role as the meeting place
both of Parliament and of the Courts of Law.
During the Middle Ages, it was often not possible to accommodate the whole of Parliament
within the Palace. The State Opening Ceremony would be held in the King’s private apartment,
the Painted Chamber. The Lords would then retire to the White Chamber for their discussions,
but the Commons at this time did not have a
recognised home of their own. On occasions, they
remained in the Painted Chamber but at other times they held their debates in the Chapter
House or the Refectory of Westminster Abbey.
There have been numerous fires on the site. It was after such a fire in 1512 that Henry VIII
decided to abandon the Palace as a residence and move to Whitehall Palace. The Canons of St
Stephen’s, the religious order which had held the services for the royal family, were dismissed in
1547 and by 1550 St Stephen’s Chapel had become the first permanent home of the House of
The other rooms vacated by the royal family were occupied by Members and Officers of both
Houses. The site thus came to develop as a Parliamentary building, rather than a royal
residence. However, it and its successor remained a Royal Palace, with the official title the
Palace of Westminster.
Westminster Hall and the other Medieval Survivals
Westminster Hall, of which the walls were built in 1097, is the oldest surviving building on the
site. Its floor area is about 1,547 sq m (1,850 sq yds) and it is one of the largest mediaeval
halls in Europe with an unsupported roof. The roof was originally supported by two rows of
pillars, but the present magnificent hammerbeam roof was designed in the reign of Richard II
(1377-1399). The mason/architect of the 14th century rebuilding was Henry Yevele and the
carpenter/designer of the roof was Hugh Herland.
During this period the Hall, with its many shops and stalls, selling wigs, pens, books and other
legal paraphernalia, became one of the chief centres of London life. It housed the courts of law
and was the place of many notable state trials: William Wallace (1305), Thomas More (1535),
the Gunpowder Plot conspirators (1606), Charles I (1649), and Warren Hastings (1788-95).
Westminster Hall was also the traditional venue for Coronation banquets. The Hall is now used
for major public ceremonies.
Among events there have been the presentation of Addresses to the Queen on the Silver Jubilee
in 1977, the Golden Jubilee in 2002, to mark 50 years since the end of World War II in 1995,
and the opening of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference in 1986. A similar event took
place in 1988, to mark the tercentenary of the Glorious Revolution, and in 1989 the Inter-
Parliamentary Union’s Centenary Conference was held there. In 1995, the Government
organised a ceremony to mark 50 years of the United Nations. On these occasions, the Hall is
brightly lit and decked with flowers and coloured hangings, and presents an altogether different
public face from its normal, rather sombre, appearance.
It is also the place where lyings in state, of monarchs, consorts, and, rarely, very distinguished
statesmen, traditionally takes place, the most recent having been those of King George VI in
1952, Queen Mary in 1953, Sir Winston Churchill in 1965 and Queen Elizabeth, the Queen
Mother in 2002.
An exhibition to commemorate Westminster Hall’s 900th anniversary was held in the summer of
1999, the ‘Voters of the Future’ exhibition was held there between April and September 2000
and an exhibition commemorating the 400th anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot in 2005. A
refreshment facility for the public, the Jubilee Café, opened in May 2002. The café is situated
near the North Door of Westminster Hall and opens out on to New Palace Yard.
The other mediaeval buildings on the site are not accessible to the public. These are the Chapel
of St Mary Undercroft, which is the lower part, at ground level (not subterranean) of the former
Chapel of St Stephen, which was built between 1292 and 1297 as a magnificent showpiece
based on the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The upper part of St Stephen’s, destroyed in 1834, had
been the Commons Chamber from 1547. The Cloisters were built between 1526 and 1529.
Much restored, they are used as offices and writing rooms and include an oratory, the lower part
of which is the private office of the Serjeant at Arms.
The Jewel Tower, now on the other side of Abingdon Street, was formerly the muniment room
(storage of land/title deeds) of the Palace, and is now administered by English Heritage. Since
1992, the tower has been the setting for a permanent exhibition on the history and work of
Parliament, called Parliament Past and Present. The tower and exhibition are open to the
public. [There is an admission charge].
The Fire of 1834 and Rebuilding
On 16 October 1834, the mediaeval palace with its later additions was virtually entirely
destroyed by a fire, which started by the overheating of a stove. It was decided to redevelop the
site comprehensively; not keeping to the original layout of buildings. A public competition was
won by Charles Barry and provided for the retention of Westminster Hall, the Crypt and Cloisters.
In the execution of the design and building, Barry was assisted by Augustus Welby Pugin,
particularly in the matter of detail, fittings and furniture. The site was extended into the river by
reclaiming land, and now covers about 8 acres.
The new Palace was begun in 1840 and substantially completed by 1860, but only in 1870
actually finished. It is in the Gothic style and its adoption for the parliamentary buildings was an
influence on the design of public buildings such as town halls, law courts, and schools
throughout the country. The effect on the imaginations of the public and 19th century architects
building towering over the three-storey yellow brick terraces and ramshackle
half-timbered houses of mid-Victorian Westminster was enormous.
The Bombing of 1941
On 10 May 1941, the Commons Chamber was destroyed by bombs and a subsequent fire. To
replace the devastated Chamber, a new block was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. A steelframed
building, it effectively incorporates five floors, two of which are taken by up the Chamber.
Both above and below it are offices. The new air-conditioned Chamber was used for the first