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Vilnius College in High Education


Vitamins, minerals,carbohydrates, fats, fiber, water



Vilnius, 2005m.


1. Introduction 3

2. Vitamins and minerals 4

3. Proteins 6

4. Carbohydrates 7

5. Fats 8

6. Fiber 8

7. Water 9

8. Conclusion 11

9. Key words 12

10. Literature 13


What you eat has a life long effect on your health and well-being. To look and feel your best, you have to eat adequate amounts of the proper foods. Many teenagers don’t always choose the food that is best for them. They may not want to eat what the rest of the family is eating or they may eat poorly at school. The food at the school cafeteria is required by law in the United States to meet certain nutritional standards, but you may not be eating their food.

There are six types of nutrients: protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. In simple terms, nutrients are the chemicals that your body gets from food. If your body gets the right fuel, just like a car, it will run smoother. Nutrients in food allow your body to break down the food you eat into energy so can use function. When you go for a run, swim a few laps, or even talk on the phone you are using energy that your body has produced. When you are taking a test, you’re using brain power, which is really energy that is coming from the food you had last night for dinner and this morning for breakfast. One nutrition key is to never skip breakfast, especially the morning of tests. Your body has not received energy for more than 12 – 15 hours and will not be able to function at its peak without that boost you get from food.

Vitamins and Minerals

These nutrients don’t supply your body with energy because they don’t have calories. However, they are necessary because they help your body convert food into energy. Using our car analogy, vitamins and minerals are like spark plugs in a car, not the gas. The thirteen vitamins: A, C, D, E, K and the eight B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6, pantothenic acid, biotin, folacin, and B12) can be divided into two types: fat-soluble and water-soluble. You do not need to consume the fat-soluble vitamins everyday in order to maintain their proper levels because they are stored in your body fat and liver. But, the water-soluble vitamins, the B-complex vitamins and C, dissolve in the water in your system. So, these vitamins should be consumed everyday (with the exception of B12, which your liver stores).

Vitamin A Promotes normal bone growth, healthy skin, hair and eyes, helps with night vision.

Vitamin C Strengthens blood vessels, helps the immune system, heals wounds and helps heal broken bones.

Vitamin D Helps absorb calcium for strong bones and teeth, your body produces this from sunlight.

Vitamin E Ensures that Vitamins A and C are not destroyed by oxygen and are properly used by your body. Helps form red blood cells.

Vitamin K Called the clotting-factor vitamin, it enables your liver to produce a blood-clotting factor to control and prevent internal bleeding.

VitaminB-Complex(8 different vitamins and minerals) Breaks down carbohydrates and fat to energy, works to give you a healthy nervous system and healthy skin, helps you digest food and utilize minerals in foods you eat, important in the production of red blood cells, and works with proteins to build and repair tissues.

Thiamine Helps keep your nervous system healthy, breaks down (Vit. B1) carbohydrates into energy.

Riboflavin Breaks down carbs, proteins and fats so your body can use (Vit. B2) them for energy and repair.

Niacin Works with riboflavin to convert proteins into energy. (Vit B3)

Calcium Needed for healthy bone and teeth development, helps with muscle function, helps blood to clot.

Iron Ensures the body produces red blood cells — which transport oxygen. (Needed to produce hemoglobin – the red oxygen carrying pigment in blood.)

Folic Acid Needed to produce genetic material (DNA & RNA), needed during and before pregnancy to prevent birth defects.

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