Tenses
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Tenses

Laikai

Present Simple – everyday/year, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekends, on Mondays …

Po when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, until, if; taip pat po who, which, that pgr. sakinys būsimasis, o šalutinis būtinai esamasis.

Present Continuous (to be talking) – now, at the(this) moment; su įsiterpusiais always, constantly, for ever.

Present perfect (to have talked) – just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before. Baigtam veiksmui su today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigųsį laiką. Nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su for ir since. Po it/ this/ that /is the first/the second/the best/ the worst/ the only; su how many.

Present perfect continuous (to have been talking) – for, since, recently/lately, how long.

Past simle – yesterday, last week/…, a week/… ago, in 1995, in january, on sunday.

Past perfect – till, untill, as soon as, before, by (that time), when, after, for, since.

If we take a taxi, it will be faster.

If we took a taxi, it would be faster.

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous Makes

Am/ is/ are making

Have/ has made

Have/ has been made

Past Simple

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous Made

Was/ were making

Had made

Had been making

Future Simple

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous Will make

Will be making

Will have made

Will have been making

If we had taken a taxi, it would have been faster.

Passive infinitive – to be broken

Simple present – is broken

Simple past – was broken

Simple future – will be broken

Present continuous – is being broken

Past continuous – was being broken

Future con. – ————————

Present perfect – have been broken

Past perfect – had been broken Future perfect – shall have been broken

Tense/ Verb form Active voice Passive voice

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Past Simple

Past Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Future

Conditional

Modals Make/makes

Am/ is/ are making Made

Was/ were making

Have/ has made

Had made

Will make

Would make

Must make

Am/ is/ are made

Am/ is/ are being

made

Was made

Was/ were being made

Have/ has been made

Had been made

Will be made

Would be made

Must be made

Present Indefinite

PI vartojamas su laiko aplinkybėmis always, often, usually, regulary, daily, etc.

Pvz. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.

*Neigiamoji forma vartojama su prieveiksmiais never, seldom, rarely, sometimes. Ji reiškia retai pasikartojančius veiksmus.

Pvz. We seldom meet.

*Veiksmo kartotinum¹ taip pat galima išreikšti PI forma.

Pvz. We have our dinner at 5 o’clock.

*PI formą galima vartoti bendriems teiginiams, nesiejant jų su laiku.

Pvz. Rockets fly faster than airplanes.

*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba savybes, būdingas veiksniui nuolat arba dabartiniu laikotarpiu.

Pvz. Tom speaks English well.

*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba būsenas, vykstančias kalbos momentu, išreiškiant veiksma˛od˛iais, kurie nevartojami eigos laikais.

Pvz. What do you want? I don’t quite understand you.

*Be šių pagrindinių reikšmių PI vartojamas:

• Reikšti būsimiems veiksmams šalutiniuose sakiniuose po jungtukų if, till, until, unless, when, as soon as, before.

Pvz. I’ll wait till you finish your breakfast.

• Reikšti iš anksto numatytiems veiksmams artimiausioje ateityje (daugiausiai su veiksma˛od˛iais leave, start, come, return, come back, go, arrive).

Pvz. We leave next Sunday.

Paprastas Esamasis Laikas ( The Present Simple Tense )

To be

I am am I? I am not ( I‘m not)

You/we/they/are are you/we/they? You/we/they are not ( aren‘t)

He/she/it/is is he/she/it? He/she/it is not ( isn‘t)

Am I not ( aren‘t)?

Are you/we/they not ( aren‘t you/we/they)?

Is he/she/is not ( isn‘t he/she/it)?

To talk

I/you/we/they talk do I/you/we talk? I/you/we/they do not (don‘t) talk

He/she/it talks does he/she/it talk? He/she/it does not ( doesn‘t) talk

Do I/you/we/they not talk (don‘t I/yuou/we/they talk)?

Does he/she/it not talk ( doesn‘t he/she it talk)?

1. Pasikartojančiam veiksmui; dažnai su l.apl. :every ( day,year…), often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekwnds, on Mondays… ir kt.

o You can sometimes see the sea the sea from here.

o He never comes late.

o They get new books from the library every week.

o The postman brings letters three times a day.

o Animals find shelter when it rains.

o She is a dietitian – she helps people to choose the right food.

2. Bendroms tiesoms ir įvairiems dėsniams:

o Light travels faster than sound.

o Drop by drop, water wears away stone.

o The sun rises in the east.

o The fool wanders, the wise man travels.

3. Suplanuotiems ateities veiksmams ( ypač kalbant apie tvarkaraščius ir programas):

o The bus leaves at 9.00 tomorow morning.

o The news bulletin begins at 10.15.

4. Ateities

veiksmams, laiko ir sąlygos šalutiniuose sakiniuose po when, as, while, before, after, as soon, until, if, po who/which and that:

o We‘ll have dinner when the quests come.

o We must get to the airport before the plane takes off.

o I‘ll make sure that he knows what you want.

o The visitors who come late will get the worst seats.

The Present Simple

Affirmative and negatyve form

I understand the signs.

You don‘t understand them.

Tanya likes watching TV.

She doesn‘t like doing homework.

Question and negatyve form

Do you see her very often?

Don‘t you see her very often?Does John go there every week?

Doesn‘t John go there every week?

We use the Present to tlk about :

1. a regular routine or habit.

• The students do a Project every term.

2. facts which stay the same for a long time.

• She lives and works in Warshaw.

3. something that is always true.

• A red traffic light means ‘Stop‘ !

Present Simple

Use:

1.To express an action that happens again and again, that is a habit.

I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.

2.To express a fact which is always true.

Rockets fly faster than airplanes.

Expressions: always every day usually sometimes never

The Present Perfect

Affirmative and negative form

John has lived in Aliaska since October.

He and his colleagues haven‘t left Aliaska since then.

Question and negatyve form

Has he experienced such cold weather before?

Haven‘t they ever wanted to return to a warmer climate?

We use the Present Perfect:

1. to talk about something which has or hasn‘t happened before in our general experience, often with ever, never, before.

• Have you ever been to an exercise class?

• No, I‘ve never had any interest in fitness classes.

2. to talk about something which happened in the past but still has an effect in the present, often with alreafy, just, (not) yet, still.

• I still haven‘t completed the questionnaire.

• Have you finished yours yet?

3. to talk about something which is still going on now or is still true now, often with for or since.

• We‘ve been members of the health club for two montuos.

W e use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.

• We‘ve lived here for 3 years; we‘ve been here since 1998.

4. instead of a present tense after when and if to talk about something that might (not) be finished now or soon.

• When you‘ve finished your book, we can go for a walk.

• If you‘ve had enough to eat, I‘ll take your plate.

Present Perfect

Use:

1.It express an action that began in past and still continues.

How long have you known each other?

I have lived in kaunas for ten years

2.It expresses experience that happend at some time in one’s life.

Have you ever been to Moscow? I’ve never heard of Mr. Johnson.

3.It expresses a past action that has a present result.

I’ve lost my keys, I can’t enter the house.

I’ve already done my homework.

We often anounce news in Present Perfect

Oh I’ve cut my finger

Have you heard the president has resigned.

The Present Perfect Continuous

Affirmative and negatyve form

John has been backpaking in Europe.

They haven‘t been swimming for montuos.

Question and negatyve form

Has he been practising his skills?

Haven‘t they been learning to climb?

We use the Present Perfect Continuous:

1. for actions which have happened often over a periodo f time.

• I‘ve been swimming regulary.

2. for an action which began in the past, has been going on for some time, and is perhaps still going on. The continuous form emphasises the lenght of the action.

• The students have been learning first aid all term.

3. for recently finished actions with a result in the present.

• He‘s been running; look, he‘s out of breath.

4. with foro r since for an action which is still going on now or is still true now.

• We‘ve been taking part in outdoor activities since the starto f the course.

We use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.

• We‘ve been living here for three years.

• They‘ve been developing confidense since they started the study programme.

The Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Simple?

I.

The Present Perfect Continuous gives importance to an action that has been going on for a periodo f time.

• We‘ve been writing application letters for the course.

A time expresion often emphasises the lenght of the action.

• They‘ve been practising their speech all day.

II.

The present Perfect Simple gives importance to the result or completion of an action.

• We‘ve written all our aplication letters.

A time expression often says how many times something has happened.

• You‘ve practised your speach three times.

Present Perfect Continuous

Veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje, tęsėsi iki kalbos momento arva dar vis tebesitęsia.

Pvz. I’ve been waiting for him for
hours.

*Paprastai vartojamos aplinkybės, nurodančios veiksmo trukmź: for 2 hours, for a long time, all day. Taip pat veiksmo prad˛ia nurodoma prielinksniu since.

Pvz. How long have you been studying English? I’ve been living in Vilnius since 1995.

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