The problems of modern man in the 20 c english fiction
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The problems of modern man in the 20 c english fiction

CONTENTS

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………….2 psl.

1. James Joyce‘s characters in his novel “The Portret of the Man as a Young Artist“…………………………………………………………………………………………………3 psl.

2. The Development of Individual Consciousness…………………………….6 psl.

3. The Heros and Their Conflicts in Conrad‘s Novel “Heart of Darkness“…………………………………………………………………………………………..7 psl.

4. Epiphany in „ The Heart of Darkness“………………………………………..11 psl.

5. Modernist’s Experiments in Heart of Darkness………………………………….12 psl

Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………………..14 psl.

References………………………………………………………………………………………………..16 psl.

.

INTRODUCTION

“ James Joyce (1882-1941), Irish novelist, noted for his experimental use of language in such works as “Ulysses“ (1922) and “Finneganns Wake“ (1939). Joyce’s technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions. From the age of six Joyce, was educated by Jesuits at Clongowes Wood College, at Clane, and then at Belvedere College in Dublin (1893-97). In 1898 he entered the University College, Dublin. Joyce’s first publication was an essay on Ibsen’s play “When We Dead Awaken“. It appeared in the Fortnightly Review in 1900. At this time he also began writing lyric poems. Joyce published “Dubliners“ in 1914, “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man“ in 1916, a play “Exiles“ in 1918. In 1907 Joyce had published a collection of poems “Chamber Music“. Also he wrote some stories such as „The Sisters“, portraying child‘s confrontation with the illness, “Clay“, “Araby“. “ (1; psl.5).

“Joseph Conrad was born in Berdichev, in the Ukraine, in a region that had once been a part of Poland but was then under Russian rule. Polish-born English novelist and short-story writer, a dreamer, adventurer, and gentleman. He wrote famous preface to “The Nigger of the Narcissus“ (1897). Among Conrad’s most popular works are “Lord Jim“ (1900) and “Heart of Darkness“ (1902). His first novel, “Almayer‘s Folly“ appeared in 1895. It was followed by “An Outcast of the Islands“ (1896). In “Youth (1902) the title story recorded Conrad’s experiences on the sailing-ship Palestine. “Nostromo“ (1904) was an imaginative novel which again explored man’s vulnerability and corruptibility.“(3).

The aim of this work is to represent modern man‘s problems in Joyce‘s novel “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man“ and Conrad‘s “Heart of Darkness“.

The goal of my work:

1. To discuss the main haracters and their conflicts of these two novels.

2. To dispute the style of Conrad and Joyse.

3. To reveal modern man.

I developed my and not only my knowledge in appropriate way. I used new older literature and the internet. For ease of use, the main material is given in certain chapters and paragraphs. I hope this work will be usefull not only for me, but also to whome, who are interested in XX century English literature.

1. James Joyce‘s Characters in His Novel „A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man“

Stephen Dedalus

He is a boy growing up in Ireland at the end of the nineteenth century, as he gradually decides to cast off all his social, familial, and religious constraints to live a life devoted to the art of writing. As a young boy, Stephen’s Catholic faith and Irish nationality heavily influence him. He attends a strict religious boarding school called Clongowes Wood College. At first, Stephen is lonely and homesick at the school, but as time passes he finds his place among the other boys. He enjoys his visits home, even though family tensions run high after the death of the Irish political leader Modeled after Joyce himself, Stephen is a sensitive, thoughtful boy who reappears in Joyce’s later masterpiece, Ulysses. In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, though Stephen’s large family runs into deepening financial difficulties, his parents manage to send him to prestigious schools and eventually to a university. As he grows up, Stephen grapples with his nationality, religion, family, and morality, and finally decides to reject all socially imposed bonds and instead live freely as an artist

Stephen undergoes several crucial transformations over the course of the novel. The first, which occurs during his first years as Clongowes, is from a sheltered little boy to a bright student who understands social interactions and can begin to make sense of the world around him. The second, which occurs when Stephen sleeps with the Dublin prostitute, is from innocence to debauchery. The third, which occurs when Stephen hears Father Arnall’s speech on death and hell, is from an unrepentant sinner to a devout Catholic. Finally, Stephen’s greatest
transformation is from near fanatical religiousness to a new devotion to art and beauty. This transition takes place in Chapter 4, when he is offered entry to the Jesuit order but refuses it in order to attend university. Stephen’s refusal and his subsequent epiphany on the beach mark his transition from belief in God to belief in aesthetic beauty. This transformation continues through his college years. By the end of his time in college, Stephen has become a fully formed artist, and his diary entries reflect the independent individual he has become. Brought up in a devout Catholic family, Stephen initially ascribes to an absolute belief in the morals of the church. As a teenager, this belief leads him to two opposite extremes, both of which are harmful. At first, he falls into the extreme of sin, repeatedly sleeping with prostitutes and deliberately turning his back on religion. Though Stephen sins willfully, he is always aware that he acts in violation of the church’s rules. Then, when Father Arnall’s speech prompts him to return to Catholicism, he bounces to the other extreme, becoming a perfect, near fanatical model of religious devotion and obedience. Eventually, however, Stephen realizes that both of these lifestyles—the completely sinful and the completely devout—are extremes that have been false and harmful. He does not want to lead a completely debauched life, but also rejects austere Catholicism because he feels that it does not permit him the full experience of being human. Stephen ultimately reaches a decision to embrace life and celebrate humanity after seeing a young girl wading at a beach. To him, the girl is a symbol of pure goodness and of life lived to the fullest.

Major conflict – Stephen struggles to decide whether he should be loyal to his family, his church, his nation, or his vocation as an artist.

Simon Dedalus

He spends a great deal of his time reliving past experiences, lost in his own sentimental nostalgia. Joyce often uses Simon to symbolize the bonds and burdens that Stephen’s family and nationality place upon him as he grows up. Simon is a nostalgic, tragic figure: he has a deep pride in tradition, but he is unable to keep his own affairs in order. To Stephen, his father Simon represents the parts of family, nation, and tradition that hold him back, and against which he feels he must rebel. The closest look we get at Simon is on the visit to Cork with Stephen, during which Simon gets drunk and sentimentalizes about his past. Joyce paints a picture of a man who has ruined himself and, instead of facing his problems, drowns them in alcohol and nostalgia.

Emma Clery

She is Stephen’s „beloved,“ the young girl to whom he is intensely attracted over the course of many years. She appears only in glimpses throughout most of Stephen’s young life, and he never gets to know her as a person. Instead, she becomes a symbol of pure love, untainted by sexuality or reality. Stephen worships Emma as the ideal of feminine purity. When he goes through his devoutly religious phase, he imagines his reward for his piety as a union with Emma in heaven. It is only later, when he is at the university, that we finally see a real conversation between Stephen and Emma. Stephen’s diary entry regarding this conversation portrays her as a real, friendly, and somewhat ordinary girl, but certainly not the goddess Stephen earlier makes her out to be. This more balanced view of Emma mirrors Stephen’s abandonment of the extremes of complete sin and complete devotion in favor of a middle path, the devotion to the appreciation of beauty. Stephen does not know Emma particularly well, and is generally too embarrassed or afraid to talk to her, but feels a powerful response stirring within him whenever he sees her. Stephen’s first poem, „To E— C—,“ is written to Emma. She is a shadowy figure throughout the novel, and we know almost nothing about her even at the novel’s end. For Stephen, Emma symbolizes one end of a spectrum of femininity. Stephen seems able to perceive only the extremes of this spectrum: for him, women are either pure, distant, and unapproachable, like Emma, or impure, sexual, and common, like the prostitutes he visits during his time at Belvedere.

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