Theatre Production, the various means by which any of the forms of theatre are presented to a live audience. The term theatre is often applied only to dramatic and musical plays, but it properly includes opera, dance, circus and carnivals, mime, vaudeville, puppet shows, pageants, and other forms—all of which have certain elements in common. They are essentially visual; are experienced directly (although film, videotapes, or recorded sound may be incorporated into a performance); and are governed by sets of rules—such as scripts, scenarios, scores, or choreography—that determine the language and actions of the performers; language, action or atmosphere may be contrived, in order to elicit emotional responses from the audience.
II FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEATRE
Ever since Aristotle discussed the origin and function of theatre in his famous treatise Poetics (c. 330 BC), the purpose and characteristics of theatre have been widely debated. Over the centuries, theatre has been used—apart from purely artistic expression—for entertainment, religious ritual, moral teaching, political persuasion, and to alter consciousness. It has ranged from realistic storytelling to the presentation of abstract sound and movement. Theatre production involves the use of sets and props, lighting, costumes, and makeup or masks, as well as a space for performance (the stage) and a space for the audience (the auditorium), although these may overlap, especially in later 20th-century productions. Theatre, then, is an amalgamation of art and architecture; literature, music, and dance; and technology. The most rudimentary performances may depend on found space and objects and be the work of a single performer. Most performances, however, require the cooperative efforts of many creative and technically trained people to form, ideally, a harmonious ensemble. See also Drama and Dramatic Arts.
III PRESENTATIONAL AND REPRESENTATIONAL THEATRE
Approaches to the presentation of drama vary from one generation to the next and across cultures, but most can be categorized roughly either as presentational or representational. Most African, Oriental, pre-Renaissance Western, and 20th-century avant-garde theatre is presentational. The stylized approach of presentational theatre makes no attempt to hide its theatricality and often emphasizes it. Thus, the German playwright and theoretician Bertolt Brecht advocated exposing the lighting instruments and stage machinery so that the audience would be reminded constantly that it was viewing a play.
Representational theatre, on the other hand, is illusionistic. Most Western theatre since the Renaissance has been essentially representational: plays have had plausible plots, characters have seemed true to life, scenery has tended towards, or been suggestive of, the realistic.
Most performances do not, of course, fall neatly into one or the other category but may contain elements of each. The plays of the American dramatist Tennessee Williams, for example, are rooted in psychological realism but often employ dream sequences, symbolic characters and objects, and poetic language.
IV TYPES OF MODERN WESTERN THEATRE
Aside from aesthetic intention, Western theatre can also be classified in terms of economics and of approaches to production, categorized as subsidized, commercial, non-commercial—frequently called experimental or art theatre—community, and academic theatre.
A Subsidized Theatre
Subsidized theatre is financially underwritten by a government or by a philanthropic organization. Because of the considerable expense of mounting a theatrical production, the limited audience capacity of most theatres, and, often, the limited appeal of much theatre to the population as a whole, many theatres can only remain financially solvent and mount quality productions with subsidies to supplement box-office income.
Most countries have a designated national theatre company supported by the state. In Great Britain and Germany, most cities or regions have subsidized companies as well. In the former-Communist countries virtually all theatre was state-supported; often this allowed more elaborate design, technology, and experimentation than in Western European and US theatre. There are signs that such funding is no longer so widely available. Until recently, considerable government support was available for the arts in the United States, especially for regional theatres—permanent professional companies located in major cities that often present performers in rotating repertory, such as the Tyrone Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Arena Stage in Washington, D.C. The amount of government support to the American theatre, however, has always been far less than that given to its European counterpart, and it is increasingly dependent on the unpredictable generosity of philanthropic foundations. This situation, largely caused by the very size and diversity of the United States and of its audience, also reflects current government cutbacks. Other important reasons are the lack of a single dominant cultural centre such as London or Paris and the lack of a strong theatrical heritage.
B Commercial Theatre
Commercial theatre appeals to a large audience and is produced with the intention of making a profit. The basis of commercial theatre is entertainment; social relevance and artistic and literary merit are secondary considerations.
Commercial theatre is centred in areas such as London’s West End or New York’s Broadway theatre district, and every major city in the world has an equivalent. Before transferring to these venues, many shows are performed in other cities, offering the opportunity to work out difficulties or to test audience response. Equally, a successful show in New York or London may tour other cities.
In 1980 a typical Broadway drama or comedy cost approximately US$500,000 to produce, a musical about US$1 million. Such high initial costs, plus the weekly operating costs (theatre rent, salaries, royalties, publicity, insurance, equipment maintenance, and the like) may cause a show to take several years to pay off its debts and begin to make a profit. Sometimes only the lucrative sale of film rights puts a production in the black. Because of such economics, West End and Broadway producers seldom take risks with unknown playwrights or unusual plays. Although the economics were not so harsh before World War II, commercial theatre has always been inherently conservative and inhospitable to experimentation. See also West End Theatres; Broadway Theatres.
C Non-Commercial Theatre
Attempts to circumvent the economics peculiar to commercial theatre since the end of the 19th century have resulted in the evolution of non-commercial theatre. Known as art theatre in Europe and America before World War I, and later as experimental theatre, it is often identified today in New York as Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway (the latter being a reaction to the increasing commercialism of the former), in England as fringe theatre, and elsewhere by a host of other names. The various goals of such theatre include presenting more serious, literary, politically active, artistic, and avant-garde drama; experimenting with new forms of production, acting, and design; and giving voice to new playwrights, actors, and directors.
Non-commercial theatre tends to operate on limited budgets, to make lack of resources a virtue, and to be unconcerned with profit. It tends to believe strongly in specific ideals and often disavows the apparent slickness associated with commercial theatre. Non-commercial theatre tries to survive on box-office income and donations, but in recent years it has become increasingly dependent on state and private subsidy. Those companies that cannot obtain adequate funding are usually faced with bankruptcy after a short time or else are forced to compromise their ideals to survive. In fact, those that do survive almost become as commercial as the theatre they once rebelled against. This has been a repeating pattern in 20th-century theatre history.
See also Feminist Theatre; Propaganda Theatre.
D Community and Academic Theatre
Community theatre is generally non-professional, consisting of members of a community who practice theatre as an avocation. The repertoire of community theatre tends to be commercial fare, although this may vary. Academic theatre, as the name suggests, is produced by educational institutions, most often colleges and universities. The educational purpose of such theatre results in a repertoire often weighted towards the classical and experimental. Some colleges have technical facilities that surpass those of commercial theatres. Academic theatre is far more active in the United States than elsewhere; with over 5,000 productions a year, it is responsible for more theatre than all other American forms combined.
V THEATRE SPACE
Theatre can also be discussed in terms of the type of space in which it is produced. Stages and auditoriums have had distinctive forms in every era and in different cultures. New theatres today tend to be flexible and eclectic in design, incorporating elements of several styles; they are known as multiple-use or multiple-form theatres.
A performance, however, need not occur in an architectural structure designed as a theatre, or even in a building. The English director Peter Brook talks of creating theatre in an “empty space”. Many earlier forms of theatre were performed in the streets, open spaces, market squares, churches, or rooms or buildings not intended for use as theatres. Much contemporary experimental theatre rejects the formal constraints of available theatres and seeks more unusual spaces. In all these “found” theatres, the sense of stage and auditorium is created by the actions of the performers and the natural features of the space.
Throughout history, however, most theatres have employed one of three types of stage: end, thrust, and arena. An end stage is a raised platform facing the assembled audience. Frequently, it is placed at one end of a rectangular space. The simplest version of the end stage is the booth or trestle stage, a raised stage with a curtained backdrop and perhaps an awning. This was the stage of the Greek and Roman mimes, the mountebanks and wandering entertainers of the Middle Ages, commedia dell’arte, and popular entertainers into the 20th century. It probably formed the basis of Greek tragic theatre and Elizabethan theatre as well. See also Theatre Buildings; Theatre Stage Design.
A The Proscenium Theatre
Since the Renaissance, Western theatre has been dominated by an end stage variant called the proscenium theatre. The proscenium is the wall separating the stage from the auditorium. The proscenium arch, which may take several shapes, is the opening in that wall through which the audience views the performance. A
that either rises or opens to the sides may hang in this space. The proscenium developed in response to the desire to mask scenery, hide scene-changing machinery, and create an offstage space for performers’ exits and entrances. The result is to enhance illusion by eliminating all that is not part of the scene and to encourage the audience to imagine that what they cannot see is a continuation of what they can see. Because the proscenium is (or appears to be) an architectural barrier, it creates a sense of distance or separation between the stage and the spectators. The proscenium arch also frames the stage and consequently is often called a peep-show or picture-frame stage. See also Proscenium.
B The Thrust Stage
A thrust stage, sometimes known as three-quarter round, is a platform surrounded on three sides by the audience. This form was used for ancient Greek theatre, Elizabethan theatre, classical Spanish theatre, English Restoration theatre, Japanese and Chinese classical theatre, and much of Western theatre in the 20th century. A thrust may be backed by a wall or be appended to some sort of end stage. The upstage end (back of the stage, farthest from the audience) may have scenery and provision for entrances and exits, but the thrust itself is usually bare except for a few scenic elements and props. Because no barrier exists between performers and spectators, the thrust stage generally creates a sense of greater intimacy, as if the performance were occurring in the midst of the auditorium, while still allowing for illusionistic effects through the use of the upstage end and adjacent offstage space.