Anglų Kalba , Students JOB
YOUNG PEOPLE IN TRANSITION IN LITHUANIA
Due to the changing economic and social environment, the prestige of educated people has been increasing, thus, more and more young people seek better education. Out of the total number of schoolchildren who finished lower secondary school, almost all of them continued further studies (in 1992 – 94%). A bigger number of young people are inclined to work as high qualified specialists. Therefore, more schoolchildren, after finishing upper secondary schools, tend to seek further education. In 1998 the number of young people who continued studying was 20 000 (87%) out of 23 000 (62%).
Most students try to live on their own, but it is not as easy as it looks from the first time. Income of young people is smaller as compared with income of all employed people. Young people with higher and college type education receives higher income.
Seeking to provide assistance for those searching for a job, in 1998 the Lithuanian Center of Information on Professions was established. Feeling responsible for the future, young people try to attain better education and strengthen their position within the labor market. Thus, they are not in a rush to form families and prefer to stay at their parents for a longer time. In 2002 the marriage rate of people younger than 25 years old was twice as low as in 1998. As an alternative, young people choose cohabitation, which is becoming more popular. The delay of getting married conditioned the decline of the fertility rate. Students find thousands of ways how to live economically, but they still are looking for job from the first year of studying. Why?
The scholarship is too less to pay taxes and to live all month.
Students need money for their leisure.
When working, they get practice, which they will need in the future life.
Work makes students independent from others.
Presently we have refused the compulsory employment of young specialists. However, the mechanism that would facilitate the employment of young specialists has not been created, and, consequently, a considerable number of young people seek a job themselves.
Approximately one third of students studying bachelor degree and four fifths of students studying master degree work and study simultaneously. Quite a number of young people with higher education prefer searching for a job by asking friends and acquaintances for help and looking for job opportunity themselves.
How to start
Students’ organizations always held a lot of programs to help for others find a suitable job. Kaunas University of technology has its own Career’s centre and held Career’s mart. Lithuanian firms and assignees from foreign companies come here and meet students. It is the easier way for students to catch their chance, maybe you are that special one, which one they are looking for?
In Lithuania it is not popular to have part-time work. In 2002 89% of all employed population worked full-time, i.e. 40 hours per week, while only 11% were part-time workers. Since quite a number of students work and study at the same time, young people form a bigger number of part-time employees in comparison with the total number of employed, i.e. in 2002 they formed 21%. 20% of men and 23% of women were working part-time. Most part-time workers are students, because this kind of job is the most suitable for them. It is rather difficult to evaluate the number of employed people in an informal sector. The existing laws prohibit informal work, i.e. work without contracts. On the basis of the data of labor force survey, approximately 5% of employed population work according to oral agreement, i.e. informally. According to various experts’ estimations, such workers make up 10-12%.
Nowadays students have a lot of chances to visit other countries and to earn a lot of money. The most popular programs among students are:
• Work & Travel (USA) is the largest and most popular work exchange program. University students can work in U.S. for up to 4 months, and then travel in U.S. for up to 30 more days. They offer students “Work & Travel USA” programs of two well-known and experienced U.S. organizations / sponsors.
• Au-Pair- it is a program which gives an opportunity for girls to works as tenders in foreign families.