Fauna importance and protection
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Fauna importance and protection

Animals in danger

As the usage of the land is getting more and more intensive in all Europe there is a threat for natural habitat to vanish, also many populations of different spieces has declined. It has started more then 100 years ago and still continues. Some of the animal populations that has been abundant earlier now are vanishing or are almost dissapeared (sturgeon, turtles and many more).

There are hundreds of species of animals throughout the world fast disappearing because of hunting or man’s interference in their natural habitat. The Spanish lynx, the North American buffalo, the Californian condor, the sea otter, the American alligator – these are just a few names of animals hunted nearly to extinction.

15.000.000 skins of big cats are traded every year, and all 36 major species are endangered. The tiger, cheetah, snow leopard, jaguar are now facing extinction. Trade of the skins of these species is illegal, but not in the smaller species such as lynx and bobcat. The skins are used to make fur coats and jackets which sell at enormous prices: a quality lynx coat, for example, costs at least 10.000 pounds. The main exporter of cat skins is South America, and they are imported by the European Community, the United States and Japan.

Monkeys, rhinos, elephants, whales, kangaroos, crocodiles are annually killed in great amounts for different purposes. Some of them are used for medical research, others are hunted for meat or adornment.

Many plants and animals are killed by man’s chemical industry, factories. Also a big harm is made by the fertilisation. The fertilisation is used very frequently and it destroys our ecosystem wildly.

Importance

Fauna is a significant part of the ecosystem. All the animals are connected in one way or another, mainly through food chains. An example of a food chain is as follows: There are small insects living in the streambanks. The small fish in the creek eat these insects, and some species of large fish eat the smaller fish. The fish are in turn caught by birds such as the great blue heron and eaten. Food chains are a very vital aspect to ecosystem. The ecosystem is very stable on its own. Independent of outsiders, it is sustained in a natural balance. Humans are outsiders who pose a danger to the ecosystem if they don_t treat it properly. Tiny differences in what we do in our back yards can effect the ecosystem. When we use insecticides on our lawns the chemicals are absorbed by the ground. Water that flows in the ground pulls the chemicals out of the dirt and washes the chemicals into the stream. These chemicals can be dangerous to the insects that live in the streambanks. If the population of the insects decreases, there will be less food for the smaller fish. That means the smaller fish die, and there will be less food for the larger fish, and in turn the birds like the blue heron. And the food chain continues until it reaches us, humans. We, being human, need to become conscious of these things that can endanger our environment. We couldn’t survive without having fauna. Despite the food and other goods like fur that we get by killing them, they intensivly cooperate in all the ecosystem causing us good soil for agriculture, fresh air, clean water and etc.

Protection

Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms…. the different plants and animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems of which they form part. Why are our fauna species in need of protection?

The facts speak for themselves.

There are lots of factors that impact extinction of world’s fauna and flora. Here is just a little part:

1. Institutional, technical and capacity-related factors:

a. Inadequate capacity to act, caused by institutional weaknesses

b. Lack of human resources

c. Lack of transfer of technology and expertise

d. Loss of traditional knowledge

2. Lack of accessible knowledge/information

a. Existing scientific and traditional knowledge not fully utilized.

b. Dissemination of information on international and national level not efficient

c. Lack of public education and awareness at all levels.

3. Economic policy and financial resources

a. Lack of financial and human resources

4. Collaboration/cooperation

a. Lack of effective partnerships

b. Lack of engagement of scientific community.

5. Juridical impediments

a. Lack of appropriate policies and laws

6. Socio-economic factors

a. Poverty

b. Population pressure

7. Natural phenomena and environmental change

a. Climate change

b. Natural disasters

Governments recognise the paramount importance of our diverse range of fauna species and is actively involved in their protection. Progressive governments ban killing of endangered species and establish nature reserves and national parks for their protection. 95 countries have signed the Convention on International Trade in endangered Species of Wild flora and Fauna (CITES) which aims to forbid or regulate trade in any endangered species.

There are of course much more conventions or other legal documents signed. One of the well known is the Convention on Biological Diversity. This one is a great legal background for different non profit organisations, projects or foundations related with preservation of fauna to establish.

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